Redleg jellybaby

Cudonia circinans


Тркалезна штитоглавка



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Assessment info
Habitat and Ecology
Use and Trade
Conservation Actions


Scientific name

Cudonia circinans




Leotia circinans Pers.

Assessment info

IUCN Red List Category and Criteria

Vulnerable D1

Date assessed

November 2020


Karadelev, M.


Kost, G.


Rusevska, K.


Miskovic, M.


Cudonia circinansis a rare species with very fragmented and isolated populations. The species is known from three (3) localities, one located on the territory of Mavrovo NP. The number of registered individuals is about 300. Both sites are related to presence of spruce communities, which appear to be the primary habitat for species growth in N. Macedonia. N. Macedonia is the southern boundary of spruce distribution in Europe; therefore, it encounters gradual deterioration of its vitality and succession into fir forest. This is the reason why, overall, species associated with spruce communities in our country are threatened. Moreover, anthropogenic pressure also poses a major threat, particularly at the station with the largest species population, which is in close proximity to a tourist resort. АОО is 16 км2 but it also entails other sites with spruce communities where the species is expected to occur.


Current population trend



In N. Macedonia, the population size is minute. During the field survey, the precise data on the status of the species population size on the specified sites was determined. It has been collected on three different locations and the number of individuals is around 200. The greatest number of specimens has been recorded at the locality near Popova Sapka ski resort. Nonetheless, in the light of the fact that the species is not strictly bonded to spruce but it also occurs in other types of conifer forests, the anticipated number of sites and specimens would be multiple times as big as the current one.

Habitat and Ecology


1 Forest
1.4 Forest – Temperate

Habitat and Ecology

Presumably saprobic; growing scattered to gregarious or in clusters on the duff of spruces and other conifers, and occasionally on well-rotted wood; late summer and fall.

In N. Macedonia, it has been collected at two sites with natural spruce woods, at an altitude ranging between 1,500 and 1,800 m. Both sites are either within or in the vicinity of the two best-developed spruce communities in the country. They are affiliated to HD Annex 1: 9410: Acidophilous Picea forests of the montane to alpine levels (Vaccinio-Piceetea). Popova Sapka, where the largest number of fruit bodies have been observed, comprises a well-developed spruce community (ass. Piceetum abietis scardicum Em 1986) whereas the other site is near the confluence of the Adzina Reka into the Radika river, in the southern complex of spruce forest in the Adzina Reka river valley. Individual spruce trees have also been recorded in Malesevo Mts (at the site Murite), in the eastern part of the country, near the Bulgarian border. It is worth underscoring that given its geographic position, the territory of N. Macedonia is the southern boundary of spruce forest European areal of distribution. The third find is in mixed forest of birch, poplar, Macedonian pine, fir and planted spruce, at an altitude of 1,200 m.

Use and trade

Use and trade

There is no confirmed use and trade of this species in N. Macedonia.



Cudonia circinans is a rare species whose populations are very fragmented and isolated. Their habitat becomes modified as a result of wood plantations, wood extraction and tourism development. A change in native species dynamics, and forest fires, more common as a result of climate change, may be the leading threat. Popova Sapka tourist resort is under strong anthropogenic impact by visitors. This section will become part of the pending Sar Mt National Park; therefore, strengthening of the protection scope is anticipated.

Conservation actions

Conservation actions

Study of the population numbers and range; interpretation of species status through improved understanding of the species biology and ecology; habitat conservation; study of the trends via monitoring.



Breitenbach, J. & Kränzlin, F. 1981. Pilze der Schweiz Band 1. Ascomyceten. Verlag Mykologia, Luzern.
Hansen, L. and Knudsen, H. 2000. Nordic Macromycetes. Vol. 1. Ascomycetes. Nordsvamp, Copenhagen.
Karadelev M., Rusevska K, Kajevska I, Mitic-Kopanja D., 2019. Checklist of Larger Ascomycetes in the Republic of Macedonia. Section of Natural, Mathematical and Biotechnical Sciences, MASA, 40(2): 239–253.
Karadelev, M, Kost, G. Rexer, K.H., 2003. Macromycetes diversity in Pinus peuce forest in the Republic of Macedonia. Atti del III Convegno Nazionale di Studi Micologici “I Funghi del Monte Amiata”: 32-47. Piancastagnaio.
Karadelev, M., Rusevska, K., 2013. Contribution to Macedonian Red List of Fungi. . 4th Congress of Ecologists of Macedonia with International Participation 28: 68-73. Ohrid, N. Macedonia.
Tkalcec, Z., Mesic, A., Matocec, N. and Kusan, I. 2008. Red Book of Croatian Fungi. Minstry of Culture, State Institute for Nature Protection, Republic of Croatia, Zagreb.