Juniper’s аntrodia

Antrodia juniperina


Фоина антродиjа



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Assessment info
Habitat and Ecology
Use and Trade
Conservation Actions


Scientific name

Antrodia juniperina


(Murrill) Niemelä & Ryvarden


Agaricus juniperinus Murrill 1905
Brunneoporus juniperinus (Murrill) Zmitr.
Daedalea juniperina (Murrill) P. Syd.

Assessment info

IUCN Red List Category and Criteria

Vulnerable B1ab(iii,iv)+2ab(iii,iv); D1

Date assessed

November 2020


Karadelev, M.


Kost, G.

Ivančević, B.


Rusevska, K.


Miskovic, M.


The species is known from eight (8) localities, three of which are located on the territory of NP Galichica. The number of registered individuals is about 300. The other sites are not protected and the habitats are under intense anthropogenic pressure. It is best seen in Greek juniper forest close to the Chalakli village, where most of the Antrodia juniperina individuals are known. This is a threatened area since there is mass exploitation of juniper trees by the inhabitants. Fires during summer season pose another serious threat.


Current population trend



Antrodia juniperina is a rare species, occurring with different abundance at all localities where the host is present (the Grecian juniper) but it is more common in the well-developed Grecian juniper communities, particularly if there are old trunks around. The highest number of specimens has been observed at localities with well-developed Grecian juniper communities, such as the locality in the vicinity of Chalakli village, where approximately 140 specimens have been recorded, whereas at other localities, such as the surroundings of Kozhle village and Golem Grad island, about 50 specimens each of Antrodia juniperina have been observed

Habitat and Ecology


3 Shrubland
3.8 Shrubland – Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation

Habitat and Ecology

Antrodia juniperina is known in East Africa as a parasite and saprobe on thick trunks of Juniperus procera; in the USA it grows on J. deppeana, J.monosperma, J.osteosperma and J.virginiana while in Europe it is known from Spain on J. thurifera, and from the Balkans and Turkey where it grows as a saprobe, rarely as a parasite on old trunks of J.excelsa and J.foetidissima.
In N. Macedonia the species has been spotted on rotten wood of Grecian juniper (Juniperus excelsa). Grecian juniper forests are considered as a priority habitat in the Habitats Directive specified as: *Endemic forests with Juniperus spp. – Pal. 42.A3 – Grecian juniper woods (Juniperetum excelsae) – forest formations dominated by Juniperus excelsa. The forest consists of pure J. excelsa or mixed with different oak trees (Quercus coccifera, Q.trojana, Q.pubescens) or in some areas with Juniperus foetidissima. The altitude of the localities where Antrodia juniperina has been collected is between 120 and 1,200 m.

Use and trade

Use and trade




The impact is manifested by host habitat degradation and/or fragmentation in view of the fact that the species is strictly bound to a single host. Immediate impact upon the species has not been ascertained. The threat manifests differently and it depends on the community site. It is minor in the protected localities within Galichica NP while it is major in the surroundings of Chalakli vill. Chalakli village near Valandovo is an endangered area since there is mass exploitation of juniper trees by the local inhabitants. They also burn branches for production of burnt lime.

For all habitats: fires during summer season could pose another severe threat. Intensive agriculture is a minor threat to biodiversity in juniper forests in the area of concern. Sheep and goat grazing of low vegetation and young trees is also a threat worth citing.
1 Residential & commercial development
1.3 Tourism & recreation areas
5 Biological resource use
5.3 Logging & wood harvesting
5.3.3 Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest]
7 Natural system modifications
7.1 Fire & fire suppression
7.1.1 Increase in fire frequency/intensity

Conservation actions

Conservation actions

Protection of old host trees is the key conservation action for protection of the species; study of the population number and range; interpretation of species status by means of reinforced understanding of the species biology and ecology; habitat conservation; study of the trends via monitoring.
1 Land/water protection
1.2 Resource & habitat protection
4 Education & awareness
4.2 Training
4.3 Awareness & communications
5 Law & policy
5.1 Legislation
5.1.2 National level



Dogan H.H. & Karadelev M., 2006. Ecology and distribution of two parasitic fungal species (Pyrofomes demidoffii and Antrodia juniperina) on scale-leaf juniper trees in Turkey. Cryptogamie Mycologie 27 27((1):): 35-43.
Garcia-Manjon J.L. & Moreno G., 1981 . Estudios sobre Aphyllophorales I. Fructificaciones sobre Juniperus. Ann.Jard.Bot.Gard.Madrid 37((2)): 407-416.
Gilbertson R. & Ryvarden L. 1986-1987 . North American Polypores (Part 1-2). . Fungiflora. Oslo: 1-885.
Karadelev M. 1995 . Lignicolous Aphyllophorales on Greek juniper (Juniperus excelsa) in the Republic of Macedonia. Mycotaxon vi: 467-472.
Karadelev M. 1998. Fungal biodiversity in Macedonia I. with a special regard to substrates with a disjunctive range and relict origin. Mycologia Montenegrina, I-n: 49-55.
Karadelev M. 2001. Distribution of lignicolous macromycetes, parasites and saprophytes on Juniperus spp. (J. excelsa, J. foetidissima, J. sabina, J. communis & J. oxycedrus) in the Balkan Peninsula. . La Deuxieme Colloque International “Le Genevrier thurifere et le forets d’altitude dans les Montagnes du Pourtour Mediteraneen”. : 125-131. Marrakech, Morocco.
Niemelä, T. & Ryvarden, L. 1975. Studies in the aphyllophorales of africa IV: Antrodia juniperina, new for east Africa. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 65(3): 427-432.
Ryvarden L. & Gilbertson R., 1993. European Polypores (Part 1-2). . Fungiflora, Oslo: 1-743.