Alessioporus ichnusanus

Alessioporus ichnusanus


Лимонест вргањ



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Assessment info
Habitat and Ecology
Use and Trade
Conservation Actions


Scientific name

Alessioporus ichnusanus


(Alessio, Galli & Littini) Gelardi, Vizzini & Simonini


Xerocomus ichnusanus Alession, Galli & Littini Karaman, 1922

Assessment info

IUCN Red List Category and Criteria

EN– Endangered: B2ab(iii); D

Date assessed

November 2020


Karadelev, M.


Kost, G.


Rusevska, K.

Tofilovska, S.

Jovanovski, Т.


Miskovic, M.


Alessioporus ichnusanus is an ectomycorrhizal fungal species with very fragmented and isolated populations. It is a very rare species known from three localities, one of them within Galicica National Park but the other two sites are situated in unprotected areas.

Alessioporus ichnusanus qualifies for listing as Endangered under criterions B and D since the number of individuals is estimated at approximately 200; it has small and restricted population; minor Estimated Area of Occupancy (AOO) of 20 km2, which is entirely compliant with the proposed IUCN categorisation. The key threat is commercial mushroom foraging whereat picking of commercial boletes damages the fruiting bodies of these rare fungi.


Current population trend



Alessioporus ichnusanus is known from three localities. Its fruitbodies are single or often clustered in groups. During the field survey, the precise data on the status of the species population size at the specified sites was determined. The average number of genets/site is estimated to be 2-3 at each locality, and according to the standard multiplier of 10 mature individuals per genet (Dahlberg and Mueller 2011), on average 20 mature individuals per site. Hence, the total population size is estimated at 200 mature individuals. The distribution of the species is more restricted than the distribution of a suitable habitat. The number of localities decreases, and this tendency is expected to continue due to anthropogenic activities in its habitat.

Habitat and Ecology



Habitat and Ecology

Alessioporus ichnusanus is a thermophilous and xerophilous species growing in warm broadleaf woodlands, mycorrhizal with oaks. The species is mostly associated with pure or mixed evergreen sclerophyllous and deciduous oak communities, while Quercus cerris, Q. ilex and Q. suber are the preferential ectomycorrhizal partners (Gelardi et al. 2014).

In N. Macedonia, it has been collected in communities of Quercus frainetto, Q.cerris and Q.pubescens). At Vojnik site, Alessioporus ichnusanus has been spotted in a riparian community, where Quercus pubescens also penetrates.

It typically occurs in rather nutrient-deficient, calcareous soils during the driest period of the year (summer to early autumn).

Use and trade

Use and trade

Alessioporus ichnusanus is considered an edible species. Nonetheless, certain authors report the species as probably poisonous.



A grave threat is commercial mushroom foraging whereat picking of commercial boletes also damages the fruiting bodies of these rare fungi. Other significant threat is habitat loss and degradation resulting from wood harvesting, coupled with disturbance due to recreational, residential and commercial development.

Conservation actions

Conservation actions

One of the localities is within the framework of Galicica National Park but the other two localities are situated in unprotected areas. Conservation actions, such as research into the species biology and ecology; inclusion in the National Biodiversity Monitoring System; and conservation of the species localities would be beneficial.

According to the Global IUCN Red List Category and Criteria, the species is Vulnerable C2a(i).



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Assyov and Stoykov 2011, Pereira 2015, Polemis et al. 2012, GBIF 2019, ÖsterreichischeMykologischeGesellschaft 2019,).
Assyov, B. & Stoykov, D.Y. 2011. First record of Boletus ichnusanus (Boletaceae) in Bulgaria. – PhytologiaBalcanica 17: 269–272.
Chevtzoff, B. 1998. Xerocomus ichnusanus Alessio, Galli R & Littini, Boletales nouvelle pour la France. – Bulletin Semestriel de la Fédération des Associations Mycologique Méditérraneennes 13 : 14–20.
Dahlberg, A. and Mueller, G. 2011. Applying IUCN red-listing criteria for assessing and reporting on the conservation status of fungal species. Fungal Ecology 4: 1-16.
Estadès, A. & Lannoy, G. 2004. Les bolets européens. – Bulletin Mycologique et Botanique Dauphiné-Savoie 44(3): 3–79.
Galli, R. 1998. I Boleti. Atlante pratico-monographico per la determinazione dei boleti. Edinatura, Milano.
GBIF 2020. Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) data portal. Collection of online herbarium specimens. Available at:
Gelardi, M. 2007. Interessanti Boletaceae mediterranee rinvenute nel Lazio: Xerocomus ichnusanus e X. persicolor. – Bolletino del Gruppo Micologico G. Bresadola – Nuova Serie 50(1–3): 141–160.
Gelardi, M., Simonini, G., Ercole, E. and Vizzini, A. 2014. Alessioporus and Pulchroboletus (Boletaceae, Boletineae), two novel genera for Xerocomus ichnusanus and X. roseoalbidus from the European Mediterranean basin: molecular and morphological evidence. Mycologia 106: 1168–1187.
Karadelev M., Rusevska K., 2013. Contribution to Macedonian Red List of fungi. Proceedings оf the 4th Congress of Ecologists of Macedonia with International Participation, Ohrid, R. Macedonia. Macedonian Ecological Society, Skopje, Special issue 28 2013, pp. 68–73.
Karadelev, M., Rusevska, K., Kost, G. & Mitic-Kopanja, M. L., 2018. Checklist of Macrofungal Species From the Phylum Basidiomycota of the Republic of Macedonia. Acta Musei Macedonici Scientiarum Naturalium, [S.l.], v. 21, n. 1, p. 23-112. Available at:
Konstantinidis, G. 2009. Mushrooms, a photographic guide for collectors. Published by the author, Athens.
Ladurner, H. & Simonini, G. 2003. Xerocomus s.l. – In: Fungi Europaei. Vol. 8. Pp. 1–527. Edizioni Candusso, Alassio.
Lannoy, G. & Estadès, A. 2001. Les Bolets. Flore mycologique d’Europe. Documents Mycologiques Mémoire Hors série no. 6. Pp. 1–163. Association d’Écologie et de Mycologie, Lille.
Persiani, A.M. 2019. Alessioporus ichnusanus (errata version published in 2020). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T147144825A167285525.
Polemis, E., Dimou, D.M., Tzanoudakis, D. & Zervakis, G.I. 2012. Annotated checklist of Basidiomycota (subclass Agaricomycetidae) from the islands of Naxos and Amorgos (Cyclades, Greece). – Annales Botanici Fennici 49: 145–161