THE NATIONAL RED LIST OF NORTH MACEDONIA

Bitter knight

Tricholoma acerbum

Macedonian

Горчлива витезовка

Albanian

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Taxonomy
Assessment info
Population
Habitat and Ecology
Threats
Use and Trade
Conservation Actions
Bibliography

Taxonomy

Scientific name

Tricholoma acerbum

Authority

(Bull.) Quél.

Synonyms

Agaricus acerbus Bull.

Assessment info

IUCN Red List Category and Criteria

VU – Vulnerable C2a(i)

Date assessed

November 2020

Assessors

Tofilovska, S.

Reviewers

Kost, G.

Contributors

Karadelev, M.

Rusevska, K.

Gjorgonoski, M.

Facilitators

Miskovic, M.

Justification

Tricholoma acerbum is a mycorrhizal species mainly associated with Quercus spp. and Castanea sativa in North Macedonia. It is a rare species, recorded at only 13 sites in well-preserved forests. The population size is estimated to be up to 2,600 mature individuals based on the currently known and predicted sites and a few fungal individuals per site. The major threat is loss and dwindled habitat quality of oak and sweet chestnut forests. In practice, the silvicultural system has clear cutting in oak forest; as a result, bare lands and even-aged forests are created while old growth forests are in decline. The species is assessed as vulnerable, under criteria C2a(i) based on an estimated population of 2,600 mature individuals, ongoing decline and small subpopulations.

Population

Current population trend

Declining.

Description

The low number of recorded sites (13), with only one mature individual observed per site, substantiates low frequency and a small population size. According to the instructions for estimation of mature individuals provided by Dahlberg and Mueller (2011), based on the currently known and predicted sites, the population size is estimated to be up to 2,600 mature individuals (130 guesstimated total number of sites x 2 functional individuals at each locality x 10 expected mature individuals each reproducing genotype may give rise to). Each subpopulation at one location holds only a few mature individuals.

Based on forest management and the effects of habitat destruction, mainly by logging activities, the quality of the appropriate habitat is continuously declining, leading to a population decline of this ectomycorrhizal species; as well as in the global assessment of the species, where it is categorised as vulnerable (Brandrud 2015a).

Habitat and Ecology

System

Terrestrial

Habitat and Ecology

Tricholoma acerbum is a species mycorrhizal with Quercus spp. Castanea, Tilia and Corylus, possibly also with Fagus. It is registered at only 13 sites in the mountains of Bistra, Dobra Voda, Galicica, Kitka, Pelister, Skopska Crna Gora and Vodno, in broadleaf forests. It is mostly found in well-preserved oak forests (Quercus frainetto, Q. cerris and Q. trojana) and also under sweet chestnut and hornbeam trees (Castanea sativa and Carpinus spp.), at elevation ranges between 600 and 1.100 m a.s.l.. Three of the locations are in Galicica NP and one in Pelister NP: all locations are in the zone for sustainable use. The species is easily identifiable but it has not been frequently recorded in the past, and it is found in habitat that is widespread in the country; thus, an estimation of probable sites has been made (Dahlberg and Mueller 2011). The total number of sites is guesstimated to be up to 10 times higher than the current number, resulting in ca. 130 guesstimated sites. It grows in the summer – autumn period.

Use and trade

Use and trade

The species is not edible; it has bitter taste, and it is known to even be slightly toxic. It does not possess pharmaceutical relevance, and it is not a subject of trade.

Threats

Threats

The species is threatened by loss and degradation of Quercus forest habitats due to logging, deforestation and diseases. In practice, the silvicultural system has clear-cutting in oak forest; as a result bare lands and even-aged forests are created while old growth forests are in decline (Trajkov et al. 2016), posing a major threat to maintenance of a stable population. In North Macedonia, ca. 1% of forests are logged annually (Kolevska et al. 2017, State Statistics Office 2018), with additional 30% illegal logging to legal wood extraction. Albeit the species is found in national parks, forests in NPs are also managed, only with restriction in regard to the logging system (Trajkov et al. 2016). According to the National Action Plan for Fight against Desertification in the Republic of Macedonia (2017), in the 2000–2012 period, a decrease of 35,000 ha (4%) of forest area had occurred based on analysis of CORINE land cover. The severely reduced appropriate quality of the habitat, creates unfavourable conditions for upholding the population.

Furthermore, it is threatened by planting of nonnative species instead of oak species in the lower oak belt (Kolevska et al. 2017).

Diseases of the ectomycorrhizal partner Quercus spp. and Castanea sativa, with varying degrees of intensity, have been reported (DPRS 2019). Diseases of oak stands are primarily caused by Euproctis chrysorrhoe L., Lymantria dispar L. and species of the family Tortricidae while diseases of sweet chestnut trees by Cryphonectria parasitica (Murrill) Barr (DPRS 2019).

Conservation actions

Conservation actions

Conservation needed: The already known locations must be protected against utilisation of the ectomycorrhizal partner and they should be preserved in their existing condition. Due to the type of silvicultural management of oak forest (Trajkov et al. 2016), in order to sustain a good habitat quality, it is vital to constitute forest reserves with maintenance of semi-open conditions at places and oak recruitment. Reforestation in the lower oak belt with alien tree species rather than oak should not be applied.

Research needed: Regular monitoring on an annual basis at the established site, coupled with field research at the noted potential sites in order to explore the distribution and dynamic of occurrence of Tricholoma acerbum. Assessment of forest health and, if required, undertaking essential measures to preserve the health of forest stands. It is advisable to digitize and regularly update forest inventories and forestry plans. There is a necessity of elaboration of a habitat map.

Bibliography

Bibliography

Bessette, A., Bessette, A.R., Trudell, S.A. and Roody, W.C. 2013. Tricholomas of North America: A Mushroom Field Guide. University of Texas Press, Austin.

Brandrud, T.E. 2013. Rødlistede og sjeldne musseronger (Tricholoma spp.) har internasjonalt viktige populasjoner i Norge/Norden. Agarica 33: 57-72.

Brandrud, T.-E. 2015a. Tricholoma acerbum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015. Available at: https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T76265852A76266227.en.. (Accessed: 23 March 2020).

Brandrud, T.E. 2015b. Tricholoma acerbum. Norwegian Red List for Species 2015. Available at: http://www.artsdatabanken.no/Rodliste/Artsgruppene/Sopper. (Accessed: 23 March 2020).

Christensen, M. and Heilmann-Clausen, J. 2013. The genus Tricholoma. Danish Mycological Society.

Dahlberg, A. and Mueller, G.M. 2011. Applying IUCN red-listing criteria for assessing and reporting on the conservation status of fungal species. Fungal Ecology 4(2): 147-162. doi:10.1016/j.funeco.2010.11.001

Diagnostic Prognostic Reporting Service of Republic of Macedonia (DPRS). 2019. Report on the state of plant diseases and pests in natural and newly established forest plantations in the Republic of Macedonia. Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Economy – Sector for Forestry, Skopje.

Friebes, G., Dämon, W., Michelitsch S., Pidlich-Aigner H., Krisai-Greilhuber, I. 2017. Verzeichnis und Rote Liste der Großpilze der Steiermark (Österreich). Joannea Botanik 14: 29–112.

Heilmann-Clausen, J., Christensen, M., Frøslev, T.G. and Kjøller, R. 2017. Taxonomy of Tricholoma in northern Europe based on ITS sequence data and morphological characters. Persoonia 38: 38–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.3767/003158517X693174.

Index Fungorum Partnership. 2020. Index Fungorum. Available at: http://www.indexfungorum.org.

Kasom, G., Miličković, N. 2006. Protected species of macromycetes in the Republic of Montenegro. Institute for the Protection of Nature, Podgorica, Montenegro.

Kolevska, D.D., Blinkov, I., Trajkov, P. and Maletić, V. 2017. Reforestation in Macedonia: History, current practice and future perspectives. Reforesta 3: 155-184. DOI:https://dx.doi.org/10.21750/REFOR.3.13.37

Krikorev, M. 2010. Genomgång av felaktiga lumpningar inför uppdatering av artportalens taxonlistor. Available at: https://artfakta.se/naturvard/taxon/tricholoma-acerbum-245043. (Accessed: 23.03.2020).

Laurent-Dargent, J. 2009. La liste rouge des champignons (macromycètes) rares ou menacés en Lorraine. Sciences pharmaceutiques. https://hal.univ-lorraine.fr/hal-01732739

Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning. 2017. National Action Plan for Combating Desertification in the Republic of Macedonia. Support to the Republic of Macedonia for the development of a National Action Plan in line with the 10-year Strategy of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) and the Convention reporting process by UNEP. Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning of the Republic of Macedonia, pp. 205, Skopje. ISBN 978-608-65988-2-2

Peev, D., Petrova, A.S., Anchev, M., Temniskova, D., Denchev, C.M., Ganeva, A., Gussev, C. and Vladimirov, V. (eds). 2015. Red Data Book of the Republic of Bulgaria. Vol. 1. Plants and Fungi. Sofia.

Saar, I., Oja, J., Põldmaa, K., Pärtel, K., Zettur, I. and Kõljalg, U. 2019. Red List of Estonian Fungi – 2019 update. Folia Cryptogamica Estonica 56: 117–126. https://doi.org/10.12697/fce.2019.56.12

Senn-Irlet, B., Bieri, G. and Egli, S. 2007. Rote Liste der gefahrdeten Grosspilze der Schweiz. BAFU, WSL, pp. 92, Bern.

State Statistical Office. 2018. MakStat database. Available at: http://makstat.stat.gov.mk/PXWeb/pxweb/mk/MakStat/MakStat__Zemjodelstvo__Sumarstvo. (Accessed: 13 March 2020).

Sugny, D., Beirnaert, P., Billot, A., Caillet, M. & M., Chevrolet, J.P., Galliot, L., Herbert, R. and Moyne, G. 2013. Liste rouge des champignons supérieurs de Franche-Comté. Publication commune Fédération Mycologique de l’Est, Conservatoire National Botanique de Franche-Comté et Société Botanique de Franche-Comté, pp. 114, LUNÉVILLE, imprimerie PARADIS.

Trajkov, P., Nestorovski, L. and Trajanov, Z. 2016. The Republic of Macedonia. Chapter 36. In: C Vidal et al. (ed.), National Forest Inventories, Assessment of Wood Availability and Use, pp. 667-682. Springer International Publishing Switzerland. DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-44015-6_36

Wojewoda, W. and Ławrynowicz, M. 2006. Red list of macrofungi in Poland. Kraków Available at: https://www.grzyby.pl/czerwona-lista-skorowidz-epi.htm.