Nail fungus

Poronia punctata


Точкеста лепешкарка



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Not evaluated Data deficient Least concern Near threatened Vulnerable ENDANGERED Critically endangered Extinct in the wild Extinct
Assessment info
Habitat and Ecology
Use and Trade
Conservation Actions


Scientific name

Poronia punctata


(L.) Fr.


Peziza punctata L.

Assessment info

IUCN Red List Category and Criteria

Endangered D

Date assessed

November 2020


Rusevska, K.


Kost, G.


Karadelev, M.


Miskovic, M.


The species Poronia punctata is known from about ten sites on seven localities in the country, at an altitude of up to 1,100 m. It occurs on dung of horses, donkeys or rarely cows, primarily in meadows and pastures. Given that there are novel, recent data on the species (2017), it is proposed for the category of Endangered (EN). The decline in equine populations and the reduction of natural grazing conditions may be assumed as the main driving forces causing fungal population decline. This species is part of the national red lists of many European countries, and it has also been published on IUCN’s Global Red List, in the category of Least Concern (LC).


Current population trend



In N. Macedonia, the population size is expected to be less than 100.

Habitat and Ecology


4 Grassland
4.4 Grassland – Temperate

Habitat and Ecology

Poronia punctata is a coprophilous fungus, occurring primarily on older horse dung but it has also been reported on dung from other equines, cows, sheep and elephants (Bignell and King 2011, Edwards 2015, Matočec 2000, Minter 1996, Szczepkowski and Obidziński 2016). In our country, it has been observed on cow and horse dung, in meadows, pastures and oak forests.

Use and trade

Use and trade

There is no confirmed use and trade of this species in N. Macedonia.



In view of the fact that the species is coprophilous, occurring on horse and cow dung,
principally in mountain pastures or meadows, the major threats are linked to the
reduced number of teams of horses and herds of cows. In our country, they are rare to
find given that natural horse, donkey and cow grazing has plummeted, and in some
parts it has entirely been abandoned.
The usage of pesticides and artificial fertilizers also leads to a decrease in the species
All of these threats disrupt the nature of such habitats (habitats and pastures), lessen the
fungus substrate, hence its population.

Conservation actions

Conservation actions

The species may predominantly be protected by conservation of its habitats (meadows
and pastures), accompanied by facilitation of its substrate via natural grazing by horses,
cows, donkeys as well proper farming activities that reduce or eliminate the use of
pesticides and artificial fertilizers.
The species has been published on IUCN’s Global Red List in the category of Least
Concern (LC) (Persiani & Ainsworth
2020), (



Arnolds E, Veerkamp M. 2008. Basisrapport Rode Lijst Paddenstoelen. Utrecht:
Nederlandse Mycologische Vereniging..

Bignell, S., and King, D. 2011. Monitoring Survey for the Nail Fungus, Poronia
punctata, in the New Forest. Hampshire: Hampshire & Isle of Wight Wildlife Trust.
BIOWEB Equador available at Poronia

Edwards, H. 2015. Does Breckland vegetation and its management influence abundance
of Poronia punctata?. School of Life and Medical Sciences MSc Environmental
Management for Agriculture..

Evans S, Henrici A, Ing B. 2006. The red data list of threatened British fungi [Internet]. Available from:

Granito, V. M., Lunghini, D. 2006. Updated observation on Poronia punctata. Micol. Veg. Medit. 21(1): 71–76.
Gyosheva, M. M., Denchev, C. M., Dimitrova E. G., Assyov, B., Petrova R. D.,
Stoichev, G. T. 2006. Red list of fungi in Bulgaria. Mycologia Balcanica 3: 81–87.

Gärdenfors U, editor. 2010. Rödlistade arter i Sverige 2010, The 2010 red list of
Swedish Species [Internet]. Available from:

Huhtinen S, Salo P, Haikonen V, Bonsdorff T. 2010. Kotelosienet Ascomycota. In:
Rassi P, Hyvärinen E, Juslén A, Mannerkoski I, editors. Suomen lajien uhanalaisuus –
punainen kirja 2010. Helsinki: Ministry of the Environment, Finnish Environment
Institute.: 272–277.

Index Fungorum Partnership. 2021. Index Fungorum. Available at:

International Mycological Association. 2019. MycoBank database. Available at: (Accessed: 2019).

Karadelev, M., Kost, G., Rexer, K. H. 2007. New macromycetes species (Ascomycetes
and Basidiomycetes) for mycota of the Republic of Macedonia. Collection of papers
Devoted to Academic Kiril Micevski. Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts. Skopje.: 311-327.

Karadelev, M., Rusevska, K., 2013. Contribution to Macedonian Red List of Fungi. .
4th Congress of Ecologists of Macedonia with International Participation 28: 68-73.
Ohrid, N. Macedonia.

Karasch P, Hahn C. 2009. Rote Liste gefahrdeter Grospilze Bayerns [Internet].
Available from:
Koszka, A. 2008. Poronia punctata (L.) Fr. in Hungary. Mikológiai Közlemények,
Clusiana 47(1).
Kålås JA, Viken Å, Henriksen S, Skjelseth S, editors. 2010. The 2010 Norwegian red
list for species. Trondheim: Norwegian Biodiversity Information Centre..
Matočec, N. 2000. The endangered European species Poronia punctata (Xylariales,
Ascomycotina), still alive and well in Croatia. Nat. Croat., Zagreb. 9(1): 35–40.
Minter, D.W. 1996. IMI descriptions of fungi and bacteria. Mycopathologia 136: 147–
Parmasto E. 2008. Red data list of Estonian fungi [Internet]. Available from:
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assessment). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020:
Senn-Irlet B, Bieri G, Egli S. 2007. Rote Liste der gefahrdeten Grosspilze der Schweiz.
Umwelt- Vollzug Nr. 0718. Bern: BAFU, WSL..
Szczepkowski A, Obidziński A. 2016. Poronia punctata (L.: Fr.) Rabenh. (Xylariales,
Ascomycota) in Poland: a threatened, rare, or overlooked species? Acta Mycol. 51(2):
Tkalčec Z, Mešić A, Matočec N, Kušan I. 2009. Crvena knjiga gljiva Hrvatske.
Ministry of Culture, State Institute for Nature Protection, Republic of Croatia., Zagreb.
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(Red Book of Croatian Fungi).
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Romanian National Platform for Biodiversity. Bucureşti: Academiei Române: 101–107.