Kotschy’s Gecko

Mediodactylus kotschyi




Zhapi me kthetra

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Not evaluated Data deficient Least concern NEAR THREATENED Vulnerable Endangered Critically endangered Extinct in the wild Extinct
Assessment info
Habitat and Ecology
Use and Trade
Conservation Actions


Scientific name

Mediodactylus kotschyi


(Steindachner, 1870)


Gymnodactylus kotschyi Steindachner, 1870; Cyrtopodion kotschyi (Steindachner, 1870); Tenuidactylys kotschyi (Steindachner, 1870);

Assessment info

IUCN Red List Category and Criteria

NT, B1a+2a

Date assessed

November 2019


Sterijovski, B.

Arsovski, D.


Ajtic, R.




Hofman, M.P.G.


The species may actually be a species complex, containing a number of threatened species (Kotsakiozi et al., 2018). Further taxonomic studies are required to resolve this and to identify the taxa inhabiting North Macedonia and potentially needing conservation measures. This assessments treats the taxon as a single species.
Kotshy’s Gecko exhibits a very limited and fragmented distribution across North Macedonia, precluding any local rescue effects in case of extinction or population decrease. Nevertheless, national populations could benefit from a regional rescue effect from both Greece and Bulgaria, and they are very well adapted to human settlements. Consequently, despite both small extent of occurrent (EOO) and area of occupancy (AOO; 3.225km2 and 52km2, respectively) and it being severely fragmented, Kotschy’s Gecko can only be placed in the Near Threatened Category, since its populations are hardly facing any serious threats. Nevertheless, the potential sudden occurrence of a threat factor can easily wipe out a couple of the populations limited to small areas and reduce the number of locations to 10 or even fewer, making this gecko threatened, nationally. Globally and in Europe, this species has been assessed as Least Concern.


Current population trend



In North Macedonia the Kotschy’s Gecko population size is not accurately determined. Generally, it is restricted to urban and rural settlements and although its populations are severely fragmented, where present they are seemingly stable.

Habitat and Ecology



Habitat and Ecology

Often found climbing or on the ground in dry, rocky or stony places. It can be found in scrub-land, under the bark of old juniper trees, on cliffs, on stone walls and on the outside and inside of buildings (Böhme et al. 2009; Speybroeck et al. 2016). It is a nocturnal species, active from March until October. Its diet mainly consist of insects, but cannibalism and other saurophagy have also been observed (Ajtić 2014; Tzoras E. & Panagiotopoulos A. 2019). In the summer in North Macedonia it can often be observed hunting under the lights on urban balconies and porches.

Use and trade

Use and trade

Individuals are often spotted as captive-bred by hobbyists and distributed within the hobbyist community.



This species is very well adapted to living in and besides human settlements, thus it is not threatened by infrastructure. Its populations are nevertheless, severely fragmented throughout North Macedonia, precluding any recoveries from local rescue effects.

Conservation actions

Conservation actions

It is listed on Annex II of the Bern Convention and on Annex IV of the EU Habitats Directive. Nationally, it is on the list of protected wild species.



Sillero, N., Campos, J., Bonardi, A., Corti, C., Creemers, R., Crochet, P.-A., Crnobrnja-Isailović, J., Denoël, M., Ficetola, G.F., Gonçalves, J., Kuzmin, S., Lymberakis, P., de Pous, P., Rodríguez, A., Sindaco, R., Speybroeck, J., Toxopeus, B., Vieites, D.R., Vences, M. 2014. Updated distribution and biogeography of amphibians and reptiles of Europe. .p 1-31.

Sterijovski, B., Tomović, L., Ajtić, R. 2014. Contribution to the knowledge of the Reptile fauna and diversity in FYR of Macedonia. .p 83–92.

Uhrin et al. 2016 Distribution updates to amphibian and reptile fauna for the Republic of Macedonia. .p 201-220.

Speybroeck, J. Beuckema, W., Bok, B., Voort, J.V.D. 2016. Field Guide to the Amphibians and Reptiles Bloomsbury Publishing Plc London . .p/.

Böhme, W., Lymberakis, P., Ajtic, P., Disi, A.M.M., Werner, Y., Tok, V., Ugurtas, I.H., Sevinç, M., Hraoui-Bloquet, S., Sadek, R., Crochet, P.-A., Haxhiu, I., Corti, C., Sindaco, R., Kaska, Y., Kumlutaş, Y., Avci, A., Üzüm, N., Yeniyurt, C., Akarsu, F., Crnobrnja-Isailović, J.. 2009 .Mediodactylus kotschyi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. .p/.

Panayiota Kotsakiozia, Daniel Jablonski, Çetin Ilgaz, Yusuf Kumlutaş, Aziz Avcıe, Shai Meirif, Yuval Itescuf, Oleg Kukushkinh, Václav Gvoždíkj, Giovanni Scillitanil, Stephanos A. Roussosm, David Jandzikc, Panagiotis. 2018. Multilocus phylogeny and coalescent species delimitation in Kotschy’s T gecko, Mediodactylus kotschyi: Hidden diversity and cryptic species . .p 177-187.

Gasc, J-P., Cabela, A., Crnobrnja-Isailović, J., Dolmen, D., Grossenbacher, K., Haffner, P., Lescure, J., Martens, H., Martinez-Rica, J.P., Maurin, H., Oliveira, M.L., Sofianidou, T.S., Veith, M., Zuiderwijk, A. 1997. Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles in Europe. Societas Europaea Herpetologica & Museum Nationall d’ Histoire Naturelle (IEGB/SPN). Paris. .p 496.

Tzoras, E., Panagiotopoulos, A. 2019. Mediodactylus kotschyi (Kotschy’s Gecko). Saurophagy. .p 375.

Ajtić, R. 2014. Morphological, biogeographical and ecological characteristics of Kotschy’s gecko (Cyrtodactylus kotschyi Steindachner, 1870 Gekkonidae) from the mainland portion of its distribution range. .p 1-70.