Inonotus tamaricis

Inonotus tamaricis


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Not evaluated Data deficient Least concern NEAR THREATENED Vulnerable Endangered Critically endangered Extinct in the wild Extinct
Assessment info
Habitat and Ecology
Use and Trade
Conservation Actions


Scientific name

Inonotus tamaricis


(Pat.) Maire


Xanthochrous tamaricis Pat.

Inocutis tamaricis (Pat.) Fiasson & Niemelä

Assessment info

IUCN Red List Category and Criteria

NT – Near threatened D1

Date assessed

November 2020


Tofilovska, S.


Kost, G.

Ivančević, B.


Karadelev, M.

Rusevska, K.

Jovanovski, T.


Miskovic, M.


Inonotus tamaricis occurs in riverside shrubs and forests associations with Tamarix species. In North Macedonia is distributed in warm regions with Mediterranean influence along the riversides and it has been observed at five sites, however based on availability of appropriate habitat a total number of 50 sites is guesstimated. Based on observed and guesstimated sites, an estimation of ca. 1,500 mature individuals was made. Inonotus tamaricis distribution is threatened by destruction to its habitat, still the extent of habitat decline in area and quality is unknown and therefore population trend is unknown. Thus the species is assessed as near threatened based on D1 criteria.


Current population trend



The species is common at the observed sites, it was sighted at more than ten individuals of Tamarix parviflora at only a single site. According to the instructions for estimation of mature individuals provided by Dahlberg and Mueller (2011), based on observed and guesstimated sites, an estimation of ca. 1,500 mature individuals can be made:  50 total numbers of sites x 10 functional individuals at each site x 3 mature individuals each functional individual may give rise to. The population trend is unknown since additional data on the state of the appropriate habitat is need.

Habitat and Ecology



Habitat and Ecology

It occurs in riverside shrubs and forests associations with Tamarix species, growing as a weak parasite on Tamarix spp. The fungus infects weakened individuals and it can develop on both living and dead Tamarix trunks (Chinan et al. 2015) causing a white rot of the heartwood (Bondartseva and Parmasto 1986).

In North Macedonia it is found in warm regions with Mediterranean influence along the riversides in associations where its main host – Tamarix spp. is present.

It has been observed at five sites, as follows: in the southern part of the country where the largest populations of Tamarix parviflora are found – in the vicinity of Demir Kapija, Davidovo, Grcishte and Gjavato, and in central part of the country – in the area Creska. In the absence of a habitat map, on the basis of literature on distribution of Tamarix spp., a higher number of sites are expected in the country. The host occurs along the river banks of ten larger rivers, as follows: the Vardar, Babuna, Bregalnica, Pcinja, Crna Reka, Bosava, Vojshanska Reka, Konjska, Crn Drim and the Radika (Micevski 1995). Inonotus tamaricis is anticipated to be found in the warmer areas where the host occurs. The species is easily identified but it has not been searched for extensively in the past; thus, the total number of sites is guesstimated to be higher by at least 5 to maximum 10 times, resulting in ca. 50 sites.

Use and trade

Use and trade

It is inedible and it does not contain any compounds that stimulate activation of the immune system in humans as it is the case of Inonotus obliquus. It is not a subject of trade.



The lack of accessibility of a suitable substrate may pose a threat to Inonotus tamaricis since Tamarix spp. occupies only small patches along the riverbanks. The riverside shrubs and forest areas of Tamarix spp. in North Macedonia are negligible and detached due to habitat loss and degradation primarily caused by land-use change into agricultural areas and infrastructure development. The trees are cut by the local community or the natural habitat is degraded due to sand excavation. Decline in population size of Inonotus tamaricis is anticipated in the future attributable to decline of habitat quality unless conservation measures are applied. Scattered individuals of Tamarix spp. will not sustain the population of Inonotus tamaricis, the species can only thrive in well-developed communities.

Conservation actions

Conservation actions

Conservation needed: The already known sites ought to be protected. Host populations in good condition should be ensured in order to maintain the population of the fungus.

Research needed: Regular monitoring on an annual basis and field research at the possible sites. There is a necessity of habitat map elaboration.



Bondartseva, M.A. and Parmasto, E.H. 1986. Clavis diagnostica fungorum USSR. Ordo Aphyllophorales 1. Familiae Hymenochaetaceae, Lachnocladiaceae, Coniophoraceae, Schizophyllaceae. Nauka, Leningrad.

Chinan, V.C., Fusu l. and Mânzu, C.C. 2015. First record of Inocutis tamaricis in Romania with comments on its cultural characteristics. Acta Botanica Croatica 74(1): 187–193. DOI:10.1515/botcro-2015-0001

Civil Engineering Institute Macedonia. 2009. Environmental Impact Assessment Study for the road Demir Kapija – Smokvica. Skopje.

Dahlberg, A. and Mueller, G.M. 2011. Applying IUCN red-listing criteria for assessing and reporting on the conservation status of fungal species. Fungal Ecology 4(2): 147-162. doi:10.1016/j.funeco.2010.11.001

Dekons-Ema Environmental Management Associates. 2013. Study for assessment of the impact on the environment and social aspects from the reconstruction of the railway on the section Dracevo-Veles from Corridor X. Skopje.

Ghobad-Nejhad, M. and Kotiranta, H. 2008. The genus Inonotus sensu lato in Iran with keys to Inocutis and Mensularia worlwide. Annales Botanici Fennici 45: 465–476.

Index Fungorum Partnership. 2020. Index Fungorum. Royal Botanic Gardens Kew and Chinese Academy of Science (the custodians). Available at:

Karadžić, D. and Milenković, I. 2014. The most common Inonotus species in the forests of Serbia and Montenegro. Forestry 3-4.

Lambevska, A., Rusevska, K. and Karadelev M. 2013. New data on the taxonomy, distribution and ecology of the genus Peniophora Cooke (Basidiomycota, Fungi) in the Republic of Macedonia. Macedonian Journal of Ecology and Environment 15(2): 69-79.

Micevski, K. 1995. The flora of the Republic of Macedonia I(3). Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Skopje.

Peev, D., Petrova, A.S., Anchev, M., Temniskova, D., Denchev, C.M., Ganeva, A., Gussev, C. and Vladimirov, V. (eds). 2015. Red Data Book of the Republic of Bulgaria. Vol. 1. Plants and Fungi. Sofia.

Piątek, M. 2001. Inonotus tamaricis (Fungi, Hymenochaetales) on Melos in Greece. Polish Botanical Journal 46(2): 275–279.

Ryvarden, L. 2005. The Genus Inonotus. Synopsis Fungorum 21. Fungiflora.

Ryvarden, L. 2019. The genus Inonotus in Africa. Mycological Progress 18: 653–657.

Simovski, B. 2014. Natural Succession Processes of the Forests in the National Park Mavrovo. Landscape Architecture and Environmental Engineering, Hans Em Faculty of Forest Sciences, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University.