Hymenochaete cruenta

Hymenochaete cruenta


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Not evaluated Data deficient Least concern Near threatened Vulnerable ENDANGERED Critically endangered Extinct in the wild Extinct
Assessment info
Habitat and Ecology
Use and Trade
Conservation Actions


Scientific name

Hymenochaete cruenta


(Pers.) Donk


Thelephora cruenta Pers.


Hymenochaete cruenta (Pers.) Donk have been confused by some mycologist with Hymenochaete sphaericola Lloyd., however the species can be easily distinguished with microscopy.

Assessment info

IUCN Red List Category and Criteria

EN – Endangered D

Date assessed

November 2020


Tofilovska, S.


Kost, G.

Ivančević, B.


Karadelev, M.

Rusevska, K.


Miskovic, M.


Hymenochaete cruenta is an extremely rare corticioid species that mainly inhabits mixed beech-spurce-fir forests at places with high humidity. It is dependent on the well-preserved habitat of its host Abies borisii-regis and in the country is recorded at only one site on Galichica Mountain. The species is easily identifiable but it has not been frequently recorded, therefore based on availability of the primary host, a highest probable total number of sites in the country was estimated at 10 and ca. 100 mature individuals are estimated. The species is under threat due to restricted distribution and small number of mature individuals. Thus the species is assessed as endangered under criteria D.


Current population trend



An extremely rare species with a minor population, recorded only at one site on Galichica Mt. The population size depends directly on the availability of appropriate substrate – old trees of Abies borisii-regis.

According to the instructions for estimation of mature individuals provided by Dahlberg and Mueller (2011), an estimation of ca. 100 can be made based on the probable total number of sites in the country (ca.10), the estimated number of functional individuals at each locality (estimated to be three), and the template of how many mature individuals each reproducing genotype may give rise to (template used three). The population trend is unknown, additional data is need for estimation.

Habitat and Ecology



Habitat and Ecology

Hymenochaete cruenta (Pers.) Donk generally inhabits mountain mixed beech-spruce-fir forests at places with high humidity; it is rarely found in the lowlands. The primary species host is Abies alba but it can also occur on Picea abies, Abies sibirica and Abies borisii-regis (Parmasto 2001). It grows on crust of drying or dead branches, in the crowns of old trees at 15-30 meters high and it continues to live shortly on fallen branches. The host species grows best on deeper acid soils with high water reserves. This lignicolous species can be found throughout the year; however, spores are produced during periods of high precipitation and humidity (Fraiture and Otto 2015, Kujawska et al. 2016).

In the Republic of North Macedonia it occurs on Abies borisii-regis, a very restricted stand in mixed beech-fir forest, at elevation between 1600 – 1800 m a.s.l. on mountain Galichica in the Strict Protection Zone (Karadelev & Rusevska 2004/2005, Karadelev et al. 2018).  Since the first data from 1988 it is repeatedly found on the same site. The species is easily identified but it has not been searched for extensively in the past, thus an estimation of probable sites was made (Dahlberg and Mueller 2011). Based on the distribution of the main host, probable sites might be the well-preserved stands of A. borisii-regis at higher elevation on Shar Planina, Korab, Bistra, Jakupica (Dautica) and Pelister mountain (Micevski 1985, Simovski 2014, UNEP 2020, personal data). Highest probable total number of sites in the country is 10. The noted probable localities found in NP Mavrovo are distributed across the park in the three types of protection zones, while in NP Pelister in the Strict Protection Zone.

Use and trade

Use and trade

It is a corticioid species that has no pharmaceutical properties, it is not edible and it is not a subject of trade.



The only confirmed locality is situated in a restricted area in the Strict Protection Zone in Galicica NP. Ttherefore, logging of old trees, clear-cutting or any disturbance of its habitat is not expected. Nonetheless, an unexpected and abrupt event chiefly affecting the host, such as an accidental fire that is pervasive in the Mediterranean area, poses a threat. The expected climate change, in terms of lower precipitation rates at this site that would unable sporulation of the fungus, is also a possible threat. Diseases on the host species Abies borisii-regis have been reported (DPRS 2019).

Conservation actions

Conservation actions

Conservation needed: The already known host trees are protected within the Strict Protection Zone of Galichica NP. Nevertheless, for species conservation, preservation of old fir forests with appropriate ecological conditions is pivotal.

Research needed:

Regular monitoring on an annual basis at the established site, coupled with field research at the noted potential sites in order to explore the distribution of Hymenochaete cruenta. If the species is recorded in some of the probable sites, conservation measures should be established, implying prohibition of logging activities and maintain forest stands with trees of different age classes.

Assessment of forest health and, if required, undertaking essential measures to preserve the health of the forest stands. It is advisable to digitize and regularly update forest inventories and forestry plans. There is a necessity of elaboration of a habitat map.



Dahlberg, A. and Mueller, G.M. 2011. Applying IUCN red-listing criteria for assessing and reporting on the conservation status of fungal species. Fungal Ecology 4(2): 147-162. doi:10.1016/j.funeco.2010.11.001

Diagnostic Prognostic Reporting Service of Republic of Macedonia (DPRS). 2019. Report on the state of plant diseases and pests in natural and newly established forest plantations in the Republic of Macedonia. Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Economy – Sector for Forestry, pp. 89, Skopje.

Đug, S., Hasanbegović, A. and Drešković, N. 2013. Crvena lista gljiva Federacije Bosne i Hercegovine. Federalno ministarstvo okoliša i turizma, Sarajevo.

Fraiture, A., and Otto, P. 2015. Distribution, ecology and status of 51 macromycetes in Europe. Results of the ECCF Mapping Programme. Meise, Botanic Garden Meise.

Holec, J. and Beran, M. (eds). 2006. Red list of fungi (macromycetes) of the Czech Republic. Příroda, pp. 1-282. Praha.

Index Fungorum Partnership. 2020. Index Fungorum. Royal Botanic Gardens Kew and Chinese Academy of Science (the custodians). Available at:

Karadelev, M. and Rusevska, K. 2004/2005. Ecology and distribution of genus Hymenochaete (Hymenochaetaceae) in the Republic of Macedonia. Biologia Macedonica 57/58: 39-53. ISSN: 1857-5277.

Karadelev, M., Rusevska, K., Kost, G. and Mitic-Kopanja, M. L. 2018. Checklist of Macrofungal Species From the Phylum Basidiomycota of the Republic of Macedonia. Acta Musei Macedonici Scientiarum Naturalium 21(1): 23-112.

Kujawa, A. and Gierczyk, B. 2020. Rejestr gatunków grzybów chronionych i zagrożonych. Atlas grzybów Polski. Available at:

Kujawska, M.B., Stasińska, M., Leski, T. and Rudawska, M. 2016. New locality of Hymenochaete cruenta in the Olbina nature reserve and revisiting of distribution of this fungus in Poland. Acta Mycologica 51(2): 1085. http://dx.doi. org/10.5586/am.1085

Laurent-Dargent, J. 2009. La liste rouge des champignons (macromycètes) rares ou menacés en Lorraine. Sciences pharmaceutiques.

Micevski, K. 1985. The flora of the Republic of Macedonia I (1). Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Skopje.

Senn-Irlet, B., Bieri, G. and Egli, S. 2007. Rote Liste der gefahrdeten Grosspilze der Schweiz. BAFU, WSL, pp. 92, Bern.

Simovski, B. 2014. Natural Succession Processes of the Forests in the National Park Mavrovo. Landscape Architecture and Environmental Engineering, Hans Em Faculty of Forest Sciences, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University.

Sugny, D., Beirnaert, P., Billot, A., Caillet, M. & M., Chevrolet, J.P., Galliot, L., Herbert, R. and Moyne, G. 2013. Liste rouge des champignons supérieurs de Franche-Comté. Publication commune Fédération Mycologique de l’Est, Conservatoire National Botanique de Franche-Comté et Société Botanique de Franche-Comté, pp. 114, LUNÉVILLE, imprimerie PARADIS.

UNEP Regional Office in Vienna. 2020. Study for valorization of Shar Mountain. Tetovo-Skopje, pp. 683.