Green toad

Bufotes viridis


Зелена крастава жаба


Thithlopa e gjelbër

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Not evaluated Data deficient LEAST CONCERN Near threatened Vulnerable Endangered Critically endangered Extinct in the wild Extinct
Assessment info
Habitat and Ecology
Use and Trade
Conservation Actions


Scientific name

Bufotes viridis


(Laurenti, 1768)


Bufo sitibundus (Pallas, 1771); Bufo viridis Laurenti, 1768; Pseudepidalea viridis (Laurenti, 1768); Rana picta Pallas, 1831

Assessment info

IUCN Red List Category and Criteria

LC – Least Concern

Date assessed

November 2019


Bogoljub Sterijovski

Dragan Arsovski


Crnobrnja-Isailović, J.




Hofman, M.P.G.


This species is listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category. Globally and in Europe, this species is assessed as Least Concern.


Current population trend



This species is considered relatively abundant to common over large parts of its range in North Macedonia. Several monitoring studies (using line transects; Buckland et al. 1993) conducted during the past four years in the frame of environmental impact assessment (EIA) activities in the Skopje, Strumica, Radovis and Shtip regions suggest that this species’ population trends across North Macedonia are stable.

Habitat and Ecology


Terrestrial|Freshwater (=Inland waters)

Habitat and Ecology

This species lives in a wide range of habitats: forests, steppes, scrubland, grasslands and alpine habitats. Animals may be present in modified areas including urban centers, city parks and gardens – and often benefits from disturbed habitats.  It is quite common during rainy spring and summer days especially in the evening hours. This species is usually active at dusk and can walk long distances while hunting insects and other invertebrates. The Green Toad is active from mid March until the beginning of October. At higher altitudes the active period can be delayed and shortened to mid April until mid September. Reproduction starts in late Spring or early Summer. Spawning and larval development occurs in a diverse range of temporary and permanent waterbodies including swamps, ponds, lakes, pools in streams and rivers, reservoirs, ditches and puddles.

Use and trade

Use and trade

There is no confirmed use and trade of this species in N. Macedonia.



The main threat over much of the range (most especially in the north) appears to be the loss of breeding habitats through wetland drainage, desiccation and aquatic pollution (industrial and agricultural). Populations might be locally declining due to mortality on roads especially in the reproductive period.

According to Sterijovski (2015) modification and fragmentation of the habitats, especially on the reproductive centres, has been a historical threat that remains in place today. Climatic change is representing indirect danger to this species. The regions most sensitive to climatic changes are the refugia such as Taor Gorge; Treska River Gorge; Crna River, including the gorges of the Raec and Blasnica Rivers; Jama; Mavrovo-Radika region; Mt. Pelister; Ohrid-Prespa region, and Nidze-Kozuf mountains (Ministry Environment and Physical Planning, 2003b).

According to the latest “Strategy for biodiversity of Republic of North Macedonia” (Ministry of environment and physical planning 2018) swamps and especially mountainous swaps are affected by degradation as a result of intensification of agriculture, water supply, irrigation, fish stocking, waste waters, conversion, and construction activities. Bearing in mind that these swamps are their reproductive centres this directly negatively influences toad populations. As it is noted in the strategy the preparation of action plans for swamp conservation is urgently needed, and amphibians must be taken into account.

Conservation actions

Conservation actions

The species is listed on Appendix II of the Bern Convention and is listed on Annex IV of the EU Habitats Directive. It is protected by national legislation as as it is on the List of protected wild species of North Macedonia (Official gazette No.139. 2011). In parts of the national species range, within various EIA studies mitigation measures to reduce road kill have been recommended.

According to the latest “Strategy for biodiversity of Republic of North Macedonia” (Ministry of environment and physical planning, 2018) the swamps and especially the mountainous swaps are affected by degradation as a result of intensification of agriculture, water supply, irrigation, fish stocking, waste waters, conversion, construction activities. Bearing in mind that these swamps are curtail reproductive centres this directly influence negatively to the amphibian populations. As it is noted in this document the Preparation of action plans for their conservation is urgently needed in which the amphibians must be included.

The national action for the “prevention of loss, degradation and fragmentation of natural habitats of national and international importance” prioritises the following actions (Ministry of environment and physical planning, 2018):

  • 10.4 Protection and restoration of swamp habitats/wetlands and riparian habitats

  • 10.4.1 Identification of the most affected lowland swamps/wetlands and preparation of action plans for their conservation

  • 10.4.2 Identification of the most affected high-altitude swamps/wetlands and preparation of action plans for their conservation

  • 10.4.3 Development of a plan and implementation of activities for the prevention of swamp and wetland degradation due to intensification of agriculture, irrigation, fish stocking and other activities of the economic sectors

  • 10.4.4 Implementation of pilot measures for the restoration of wetlands



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