THE NATIONAL RED LIST OF NORTH MACEDONIA

Tiny earthstar

Geastrum minimum

Macedonian

Џуџеста ѕвездичка

Albanian

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Taxonomy
Assessment info
Population
Habitat and Ecology
Threats
Use and Trade
Conservation Actions
Bibliography

Taxonomy

Scientific name

Geastrum minimum

Authority

Schwein.

Synonyms

Geastrum cesatii Rabenh.

Assessment info

IUCN Red List Category and Criteria

Vulnerable B1ab(i,iii,iv)+2ab(i,iii,iv)

Date assessed

November 2020

Assessors

Rusevska, K.

Reviewers

Kost, G.

Contributors

Karadelev, M.

Facilitators

Miskovic, M.

Justification

The species Geastrum minimum has been recorded at 4 localities, whereof one is a Grecian juniper community, the second is oak-hornbeam forest in close proximity to a Grecian juniper community, the third is pine-oak association, and the fourth a mixed forest (plantations inclusive). One to three individuals have been registered per site. It is worth noting that the finds from the localities with Grecian juniper date from two decades ago, and they have not been reconfirmed despite the numerous visits almost on a yearly basis. Therefore, the species is proposed for the category of vulnerable.

Population

Current population trend

Decreasing

Description

In N. Macedonia, the population size is minor. The number of fruiting bodies in all predicted habitats is estimated at less than 100.

Habitat and Ecology

System

1 Forest
1.4 Forest – Temperate
3 Shrubland
3.8 Shrubland – Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation

Habitat and Ecology

Geastrum minimum is a saprobic species, growing in well-developed and old Greek juniper forest on Golem Grad Island, where these trees constitute the association Pruno webbii-Juniperetum excelsae. The species is most probably extinct from this site because it was spotted only once, in 1997, and it has not been reconfirmed since then, notwithstanding the numerous visits to Golem Grad almost on an annual basis. This species has also been sighted along the Pcinja river, in oak – hornbeam forest, bordering a well-developed Grecian juniper association. It has also been found in pine-oak and mixed forest, wherefore the tiny earthstar is predicted to also occur on other localities with Grecian juniper and / or oak.

Use and trade

Use and trade

There is no confirmed use and trade of this species in N. Macedonia.

Threats

Threats

The minor size of the area with a refugial and isolated Greek juniper association on Golem Grad Island, accompanied by the small size of the population in N. Macedonia. The upsurge in the number of tourists visiting the island in recent years although tourism is not on a large scale due to the lack of organised water transportation.

Habitat loss/degradation caused by anthropogenic pressure. This chiefly refers to Vodno.
Forest fires, more common due to climate change, may pose another major threat.

Conservation actions

Conservation actions

The species can be protected via prevention of forest degradation and by forest conservation. This includes precluding intensification of logging practices in forests and plantations as well as in the adjacent areas.

Active prevention of forest succession and erosion is recommended. Designating key sites for protection is advised.

Bibliography

Bibliography

http://www.abfg.org/page/nat-fungus-weekend/51/redlist1.html#:~:text=Red%20List%20of%20Fungi%20for,%2C%20Lycoperdon%2C%20Piptoporus%2C%20Tulostoma.
https://www.britmycolsoc.org.uk/application/files/2013/3537/5755/RDL_of_Threatened_British_Fungi.pdf.
Index Fungorum Partnership. 2021. Index Fungorum. Available at: http://www.indexfungorum.org.
International Mycological Association. 2019. MycoBank database. Available at: http://www.mycobank.org/. (Accessed: 2019).
Karadelev, M., Rusevska, K., 2013. Contribution to Macedonian Red List of Fungi. . 4th Congress of Ecologists of Macedonia with International Participation 28: 68-73. Ohrid, N. Macedonia.