Poplar bolete

Hortiboletus bubalinus


Парковски вргањ



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Not evaluated DATA DEFICIENT Least concern Near threatened Vulnerable Endangered Critically endangered Extinct in the wild Extinct
Assessment info
Habitat and Ecology
Use and Trade
Conservation Actions


Scientific name

Hortiboletus bubalinus


(Oolbekk. & Duin) L. Albert & Dima


Boletus bubalinus Oolbekk. & Duin

Xerocomus bubalinus (Oolbekk. & Duin) Redeuilh

Xerocomellus bubalinus (Oolbekk. & Duin) Mikšík

Assessment info

IUCN Red List Category and Criteria

DD – Data Deficient

Date assessed

November 2020


Tofilovska, S.


Kost, G.


Karadelev, M.

Rusevska, K.

Gjorgonoski, M.


Miskovic, M.


Hortiboletus bubalinus is mycorrhizal species, primarily with Tilia, Populus and Betula. It occurs in urban environments, parks and private gardens, in open areas, and it has been recorded at only one site in the country, in the biogeographical region Strushko Pole. Due to the diverse set of environments where the species occurs and the insufficient data for the respective habitats, it is hardly possible to make any estimations on the probable number of sites and mature individuals. Therefore, the species is categorised as Data Deficient.


Current population trend



As of recently, this species has been granted greater consideration, and in North Macedonia, it has been sighted at only one site. It might have been overlooked in the past and confused with the similar and common H. rubellus (Krombh.) Simonini, Vizzini & Gelardi and H. engelii (Hlaváček) Biketova & Wasser. It was not viable to make estimation on probable sites and population size due to the fact that the species mainly thrives in park areas, related to which no statistics data are available, and because it has a wide scope of mycorrhizal partners. The population trend in unknown.

Habitat and Ecology



Habitat and Ecology

Hortiboletus bubalinus grows in urban environments, parks, private gardens, lawns and wooded strips along roads, at open areas, the species has well-known ecology. Most often it is in association with Tilia, Populus and Betula although it can also be found with other broadleaf trees, and there are even reports on Pinus and Picea (Assyov and Stoykov 2011, Alli et al. 2019). It prefers moist soil and it is often seen by river beds. The species typically produces sporocarps from late-spring to late-autumn. In Italy, it has been observed at air temperature between 18–21 °C degrees (Gelardi 2008-2009).

In North Macedonia, it has been recorded at a single site, in the region of Strushko Pole, in a park situated 200 meters away from the shore of Lake Ohrid, at an elevation of 695 m. It has not been frequently reported in the past, since it might have been identified as one of the similar species in this group. It has garnered greater attention in the last decade, especially in the southern parts of Europe (Gelardi 2010). Due to the type of species ecology, it is barely feasible to make any estimation on the availability of an appropriate habitat and estimation on the probable number of sites.

Use and trade

Use and trade

It is an edible species; yet, it is not subject of trade.



A potential threat might be the complete conversion of the park land for another purpose or if during maintenance of parks, mycorrhizal trees are eliminated. Another possible threat in park areas might be the mowing of lawns and the damage done to the fruit bodies before maturity and spore release.

Conservation actions

Conservation actions

Conservation needed: At the known site, any activities that might change and degrade the habitat should be avoided. The mycorrhizal trees should be left on site and an open area is to be maintained. Precaution while mowing so as to avoid damage to the fruit bodies.

Research needed: Regular monitoring on an annual basis at the established site, coupled with field research at the potential sites in order to explore the species dynamics of occurrence and distribution. It is advisable to assemble inventories for park areas in the country and explore their diversity, and it might also be beneficial to make assessment of tree health in the parks.



Alli, H., Tevlim, G. and Şen, İ. 2019. A New Record for Turkey’s Mycobiota from an Interesting Habitat in the Mugla Provini Hortiboletus bubalinus (Oolbekk. & Duin) L. Albert & Dima. . Mugla Journal of Science and Technology 5(1): 114-118.

ArtDatabanken, 2020. Hortiboletus bubalinus. Artfakta 2020 Red List of Swedish Species online database. Available at:

Assyov, B. and Stoykov, D. 2011. Boletus bubalinus (Boletaceae). A new addition for the bolete mycota of Bulgaria and the Balkans. Comptes rendus de l’Académie bulgare des Sciences 64(11): 1583-1588.

Gelardi, M. 2008-2009. First record of Xerocomus bubalinus in Italy and the generic placement of Xerocomus engelii comb. nov. Bollettino dell’Associazione Micologica Ecologica Romana 75-76(3-1): 11-20.

Gelardi, M. 2010. Additional data and iconography concerning Xerocomus bubalinus from Central and Northern Italy. Bollettino dell’Associazione Micologica Ecologica Romana 80-81(2-3): 13-21.

Hyvärinen, E., Juslén, A., Kemppainen, E., Uddström, A. and Liukko, U.M. 2019. The 2019 Red List of Finnish Species. Ympäristöministeriö and Suomen ympäristökeskus, pp. 704. Helsinki.

Index Fungorum Partnership. 2020. Index Fungorum. Royal Botanic Gardens Kew and Chinese Academy of Science (the custodians). Available at: