Leucopaxillus compactus

Leucopaxillus compactus


Збиена свивка, Збиена дебелоношка



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Assessment info
Habitat and Ecology
Use and Trade
Conservation Actions


Scientific name

Leucopaxillus compactus


(P. Karsten) Neuhoff


Leucopaxillus tricolor (Peck) Kühner

A group of authors has determined that the basionym of Leucopaxillus compactus (Agaricus compactus Fr. 1861) corresponds to Entoloma lividum; therefore, it has been concluded that Leucopaxillus tricolor (Peck) Kühner is the legitimate name while Leucopaxillus compactus (P. Karsten) Neuhoff is invalid (Fraiture and Otto 2015). Due to technical reasons, the name L. compactus was used in this assessment.

Assessment info

IUCN Red List Category and Criteria

VU – Vulnerable, D1

Date assessed

November 2020


Tofilovska, S.


Kost, G.


Karadelev, M.

Rusevska, K.


Miskovic, M.


Leucopaxillus compactus occurs in old-growth deciduous forests, mainly with oak, on calcareous soil. It is an extremely rare species, registered at only two sites in the country. The probable total number of sites is estimated to be up to 20 while the number of mature individuals is estimated at ca. 400 whereas the population trend is unknown. The main threat is the deforestation and decline in habitat quality. The species is assessed as Vulnerable according to the D1 criterion.


Current population trend



Leucopaxillus compactus is reported as an extremely rare species in the country. It has been confirmed at a minor number of sites, with one observation per site.

Pursuant to the instructions for estimation of mature individuals provided by Dahlberg and Mueller (2011), an estimate can be made of ca. 400, based on the probable total number of sites in the country (20), the estimated number of functional individuals at each locality (estimated to be two), and the template of how many mature individuals each reproducing genotype may give rise to (the template used ten). Due to the species ecology and the small number of sites, the population trend is unknown.

At the global level, a population decline is estimated as a consequence of silvicultural management that leads to habitat loss and deterioration.

Habitat and Ecology



Habitat and Ecology

In North Macedonia, Leucopaxillus compactus is found in old-growth deciduous forests of Quercus pubescens, Q. frainetto and Carpinus orientalis but it can also be found in Q. ilex, Fagus sylvatica, Castanea sativa and in mixed forests. It is a terrestrial saprotroph, preferring dry to mesic calcareous soil. The species produces sporocarps from late summer to winter.

It is an extremely rare species, recorded at only two sites in the mountains of Jakupica and Galicica, at an elevation between 600–850m. In Galicica NP, the site is situated in the zone of sustainable use. The species has well-known ecology but it has not been frequently observed in the past, and given that it is not present in popular books, it might have been omitted by amateur mycologists. As a result, based on the species knowledge and the availability of an appropriate habitat, estimation of the highest probable number of sites was made at 20.

Use and trade

Use and trade

The genus Leucopaxillus is known to be non-poisonous; yet, it is rare and it is not traditionally used as an edible mushroom. There is no use and trade related to the species, and it is not traded by mushroom purveyors.



Leucopaxillus compactus has a minute population size, inhabiting old-growth deciduous forests that are under pressure of forest management. Therefore, the species is mainly threatened by loss and decline in health of oak and beech forest habitats due to logging. In practice, the silvicultural system has clear-cutting in both oak and beech forest. As a result, bare lands and even-aged forests are created while old growth forests are in decline (Trajkov et al. 2016). In North Macedonia, ca. 1% of forests are logged annually by the national forestry management service (Kolevska et al. 2017, State Statistics Office 2018). Illegal logging is considerably high, with additional 30% to legal wood extraction. Therefore, the quality and area of the appropriate habitat is continuously reducing.

According to the National Action Plan for Fight against Desertification in the Republic of Macedonia (2017), in the 2000–2012 period, a decrease of 35,000 ha of forest area had occurred based on analysis of CORINE land cover.

The species habitat is also threatened by changes in tree species composition due to planting of non-native species, especially in the oak belt (Kolevska et al. 2017).

A decline in health of forest stands due to diseases with varying degrees of intensity has been reported (DPRS 2019).

Conservation actions

Conservation actions

Conservation needed: The known locations where the species occurs must be protected and preserved in their natural condition. Due to the type of silvicultural management of oak forest, in order to maintain a good habitat quality, it is vital to constitute forest reserves, to designate woodland key biotopes and practise oak recruitment. In the managed forests, oak and beech, at places of logging activities, instead of clear-cutting, trees of various ages should be left on site. Reforestation with alien tree species rather than oak should be abandoned.

Research needed: Regular monitoring on an annual basis at the confirmed sites, coupled with field research at the noted potential sites in order to explore the distribution and dynamics of occurrence of Leucopaxillus compactus. Assessment of forest health and, if required, initiating essential measures to preserve the health of forest stands. It is advisable to digitize and regularly update forest inventories and forestry plans. There is a need for elaboration of a country’s habitat map.



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