THE NATIONAL RED LIST OF NORTH MACEDONIA

Large bowl smoke mushroom

Disciseda bovista

Macedonian

Песочна пуфка

Albanian

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Not evaluated Data deficient Least concern Near threatened Vulnerable ENDANGERED Critically endangered Extinct in the wild Extinct
NE DD LC NT VU EN CR EW EX
Taxonomy
Assessment info
Population
Habitat and Ecology
Threats
Use and Trade
Conservation Actions
Bibliography

Taxonomy

Scientific name

Disciseda bovista

Authority

(Klotzsch) Henn

Synonyms

Geastrum bovista Klotzsch

Assessment info

IUCN Red List Category and Criteria

Endangered B1ab(iii,iv)+2ab(iii,iv)

Date assessed

November 2020

Assessors

Rusevska, K.

Reviewers

Kost, G.

Contributors

Karadelev, M.

Facilitators

Miskovic, M.

Justification

The species Disciseda bovista has been confirmed at three sites, in riparian poplar – willow belts, one species per site. Given the significance of riparian habitats in N. Macedonia and overall in Europe, and the minor number of localities and recorded specimens, it is proposed for the category of Endangered (EN).

Population

Current population trend

Decreasing

Description

The established population of Disciseda bovista in the country is minute, i.e. one species per site has been found. Given that the species has been observed in riparian associations along the Bregalnica river, where the mycological studies have intensified since 2015, and systematically, on selected and marked plots, in the last three years, species occurrence is anticipated along the entire lower course of the river as well as on other sites with well-preserved riparian poplar – willow associations.

Habitat and Ecology

System

1 Forest
1.4 Forest – Temperate

Habitat and Ecology

Disciseda bovista is a saprobic gasteroid species, commonly thriving in open, sunny, arid and pseudo-steppe habitats whereas in Norway it has been reported from open areas on calcareous substrate and with continental climate. In our country, it occurs along the Bregalnica river, mostly in its lower course, and it has been sighted in a small, pure poplar community (near Krupiste village), and in the riparian poplar – willow belts opposite the abandoned villages of Penus and Testemelci. All finds stem from springtime – April to June.

Use and trade

Use and trade

There is no confirmed use and trade of this species in N. Macedonia.

Threats

Threats

Threats to the species Disciseda bovista are largely concerned with threats to its habitats i.e. poplar communities. In view of the fact that these are riparian belts, floods constitute one of the threats. Another threat is grazing of cows and sheep. In addition, occasional presence of people, for instance, fishermen (habitat loss/degradation caused by anthropogenic pressure), leads to loss of part of the assess localities via solid and liquid waste pollution. A large portion of these areas are uninhabited and inaccessible; therefore, they are overgrown with high herbaceous or dense scrub vegetation while the species mostly grows in open land.

Conservation actions

Conservation actions

In order to protect the species, it is necessary to protect its habitats i.e. protect them from anthropogenic impact, and allow for unhindered natural development of riparian belts.

Bibliography

Bibliography

https://artsdatabanken.no/Rodliste2015/rodliste2015/Norge/54312(.
Index Fungorum Partnership. 2021. Index Fungorum. Available at: http://www.indexfungorum.org.
International Mycological Association. 2019. MycoBank database. Available at: http://www.mycobank.org/. (Accessed: 2019).
Karadelev, M., Rusevska, K., 2013. Contribution to Macedonian Red List of Fungi. . 4th Congress of Ecologists of Macedonia with International Participation 28: 68-73. Ohrid, N. Macedonia.
Rusevska, K. & M. Karadelev. 2014/2015. Distribution of Bovista, Bovistella and Disciseda in the Republic of Macedonia. Biologia Macedonica. Skopje, Macedonia. 64: 55-64.
Vizzini, А.& L. Panno. 2010. Disciseda bovista, recently collected from northern Italy,and Lycoperdon defossum, a synonym of D. candida. Mycotaxon. 113: 129–136.