THE NATIONAL RED LIST OF NORTH MACEDONIA

Fen puffball

Bovista paludosa

Macedonian

Тресетишна пувка

Albanian

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Not evaluated Data deficient Least concern Near threatened Vulnerable Endangered CRITICALLY ENDANGERED Extinct in the wild Extinct
NE DD LC NT VU EN CR EW EX
Taxonomy
Assessment info
Population
Habitat and Ecology
Threats
Use and Trade
Conservation Actions
Bibliography

Taxonomy

Scientific name

Bovista paludosa

Authority

Lév.

Synonyms

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Assessment info

IUCN Red List Category and Criteria

Critically Endangered C2a(i); D

Date assessed

November 2020

Assessors

Rusevska, K.

Reviewers

Kost, G.

Contributors

Karadelev, M.

Facilitators

Miskovic, M.

Justification

The species Bovista paludosa primarily occurs in wet habitats, first and foremost in high alpine peat bogs. In our country, it has been found in Sar Mt (two sites) and in Korab Mt (a single site), in wet peat bogs with Sphagnum. The number of recorded individuals is no more than 20. The number of fruiting bodies in all anticipated habitats is estimated at less than 50. In the light of the endangerment of these habitats in the country but also in Europe as a whole, and the small number of sites and individuals, it has been proposed for the category of Critically Endangered – CR. According to IUCN’s Global Red List of Threatened Species, the species is assessed as Vulnerable.

Population

Current population trend

Decreasing

Description

In N. Macedonia, the population size is inconsiderable. The number of fruiting bodies in all anticipated habitats is estimated at less than 50.

Habitat and Ecology

System

5 Wetlands (inland)
5.4 Wetlands (inland) – Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands

Habitat and Ecology

This species is associated with mosses, and it grows in peat bogs and mires in the high mountain belt (area), above 1,800 m altitude. The fruit bodies normally develop during summertime.

Use and trade

Use and trade

There is no confirmed use and trade of this species in N. Macedonia.

Threats

Threats

Bovista paludosa is a species associated with mosses and growing in one of the most vulnerable and declining habitats – peat bogs and mires as well as alkaline and neutral fens and wet meadows. These habitats are among the most threatened types of terrestrial habitats due to hydrological system modifications, surface water and air pollution (eutrophication), natural succession and erosion, and forest management. Thus, the species is threatened by habitat loss and degradation. Its population decline has been widely reported. The current and potential locations of the species in our country are not within protected areas, excluding the site Skrtec (Korab Mt), which is within the boundaries of Mavrovo NP.
1 Residential & commercial development
7 Natural system modifications
7.2 Dams & water management/use
7.2.3 Abstraction of surface water (agricultural use)
9 Pollution
9.3 Agricultural & forestry effluents
9.3.2 Soil erosion, sedimentation
11.1 Habitat shifting & alteration

Conservation actions

Conservation actions

The species can be protected through conservation of its habitat and preventing degradation of sites of actual and potential occurrence. This includes prevention of changes in water regime, avoiding intensification of silviculture practices in the surrounding areas, active prevention of forest succession and erosion, control over the practices leading to eutrophication, etc. Designating key sites for protection is recommended.
The species is part of IUCN’s Global Red List of Threatened Species, assessed as Vulnerable (VU): A2c+3c+4c.
2 Land/water management
2.1 Site/area management
2.3 Habitat & natural process restoration
4 Education & awareness
4.3 Awareness & communications
5 Law & policy
5.1 Legislation
5.1.2 National level

Bibliography

Bibliography

Dahlberg, A. and Croneborg, H. 2003. 33 threatened fungi in Europe: Complementary and revised information on candidates for listing in Appendix I of the Bern Convention. Swedish Species Information Centre, Uppsala.
Fraiture, A and Otto, P (eds). 2015. Distribution, ecology & status of 51 macromycetes in Europe. Results of the ECCF Mapping Programme. Botanic Garden Meise, Meise.
Index Fungorum Partnership. 2021. Index Fungorum. Available at: http://www.indexfungorum.org.
International Mycological Association. 2019. MycoBank database. Available at: http://www.mycobank.org/. (Accessed: 2019).
Kreisel, H. 1967. Taxonomisch-Pflanzengeographische monographie der Gattung Bovista. Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia. 25: 1-244.
Rusevska, K. & M. Karadelev. 2014/2015. Distribution of Bovista, Bovistella and Disciseda in the Republic of Macedonia. Biologia Macedonica. Skopje, Macedonia. 64: 55-64.