THE NATIONAL RED LIST OF NORTH MACEDONIA

Dark saddle

Helvella atra

Macedonian

Црно седло

Albanian

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Not evaluated Data deficient Least concern Near threatened VULNERABLE Endangered Critically endangered Extinct in the wild Extinct
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Taxonomy
Assessment info
Population
Habitat and Ecology
Threats
Use and Trade
Conservation Actions
Bibliography

Taxonomy

Scientific name

Helvella atra

Authority

J. König

Synonyms

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Assessment info

IUCN Red List Category and Criteria

Vulnerable B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii); D1

Date assessed

November 2020

Assessors

Karadelev, M.

Reviewers

Kost, G.

Contributors

Rusevska, K.

Tofilovska, S.

Facilitators

Miskovic, M.

Justification

Helvella atra is a rare species with very fragmented and isolated populations. The species is known from four (4) localities, all in areas that are not under a protection regime. In N. Macedonia, it has been collected from the mountain regions in the country, at an altitude ranging between 400 and 1,400 m, most commonly in oak woodlands albeit it also emerges in open areas. The number of registered individuals is about 200, but it is expected to be multiple times as big as the current figure. The species is a saprobe, occurring in coniferous and deciduous forests, and due to insufficient study of spring species, the anticipated number of sites and specimens would be manifold. The most serious threat is logging, but also stock breeding, wood plantations, forest fires and soil pollution.

Population

Current population trend

Decreasing

Description

In N. Macedonia, the population size is minute. During the field survey, the precise data on the status of the species population size on the specified sites was determined. It has been collected on four different locations and the number of individuals is approximately 200. The species is a saprobe, occurring in coniferous and deciduous forests; thus, the anticipated number of sites and specimens would be manifold.

Habitat and Ecology

System

1 Forest
1.4 Forest – Temperate

Habitat and Ecology

Helvella atra is saprotrophic or probably psammotrophic fungus on sandy soil. It grows on the ground in coniferous and deciduous forests. It appears to favour sandy alkaline soil rather than acidic soil or heavy clay, and although most often found in forests, it is certainly not confined to woodland.

In N. Macedonia, it has been collected from the mountain regions in the country, at an altitude varying between 400 and 1,400 m. The highest elevation where it has been collected is in beech-pine forest with Pinus strobus plantations in Malesevo Mts whereas in Dobra Voda and Kitka mountains, it occurs in Italian oak and Turkey oak woodland. It is only in Ruen Mt that it has been observed outside forests, namely, in an open area. It grows in springtime and in autumn.

Use and trade

Use and trade

There is no confirmed use and trade of this species in N. Macedonia.

Threats

Threats

Helvella atra is a rare species whose populations are very fragmented and isolated. Their habitat changes as a result of wood extraction, stock breeding, wood plantations, forest fires and soil pollution.

Conservation actions

Conservation actions

Study of the population numbers and range; better understanding of the species biology and ecology; conservation of the habitats; regular monitoring.

Bibliography

Bibliography

Breitenbach, J. & Kränzlin, F. 1981. Pilze der Schweiz Band 1. Ascomyceten. Verlag Mykologia, Luzern.

Dennis, R.W.G. 1981. British Ascomycetes. J. Cramer in der A. R. Gantner Verlag, Cramer, Vaduz.

Hansen, L. and Knudsen, H. 2000. Nordic Macromycetes. Vol. 1. Ascomycetes. Nordsvamp, Copenhagen.

Karadelev M., Rusevska K, Kajevska I, Mitic-Kopanja D., 2019. Checklist of Larger Ascomycetes in the Republic of Macedonia. Section of Natural, Mathematical and Biotechnical Sciences, MASA, 40(2): 239–253.

Karadelev, M, Kost, G. Rexer, K.H., 2003. Macromycetes diversity in Pinus peuce forest in the Republic of Macedonia. Atti del III Convegno Nazionale di Studi Micologici “I Funghi del Monte Amiata”: 32-47. Piancastagnaio.

Medardi, G. 2006. Ascomiceti d’Italia Atlante fotografico degli Ascomiceti d’Italia. AMB Centro Studi Micologici, Trento.