THE NATIONAL RED LIST OF NORTH MACEDONIA

Bearded tooth

Hericium erinaceus

Macedonian

Ресест игличар

Albanian

/

Back to species overview
<< Previous -Coral tooth fungus
Poplar bolete-Next >>
Not evaluated Data deficient Least concern Near threatened Vulnerable ENDANGERED Critically endangered Extinct in the wild Extinct
NE DD LC NT VU EN CR EW EX
Taxonomy
Assessment info
Population
Habitat and Ecology
Threats
Use and Trade
Conservation Actions
Bibliography

Taxonomy

Scientific name

Hericium erinaceus

Authority

(Bulliard) Persoon

Synonyms

Hydnum erinaceus Bull.

Assessment info

IUCN Red List Category and Criteria

EN – Endangered C2a(i)

Date assessed

November 2020

Assessors

Tofilovska, S.

Reviewers

Kost, G.

Contributors

Karadelev, M.

Rusevska, K.

Facilitators

Miskovic, M.

Justification

Hericium erinaceus is a wood-inhabiting fungus, mainly found on old large-diameter dead trees of Fagus sylvatica and Quercus spp. It is a rare species, registered at only 14 sites. Yet, based on availability of appropriate substrate, the total number of sites is guesstimated to be up to 70 sites. The population size is estimated at ca. 200–300 mature individuals based on the currently known and predicted sites. Per each subpopulation only one or two mature individuals are observed. Given the management of forests and effects of habitat destruction, due to logging of old large-diameter beech and oak trees as well as removal of fallen trunks, the quality of the suitable habitat is in continuous decline, leading to a continuous population decline. Therefore, the species is assessed as Endangered under criteria C2a(i).

Population

Current population trend

Decline.

Description

The low number of recorded sites (14), with only one mature individual observed per site, validates the low frequency and the small population size.

This species grows in broadleaf forests, beech and oak, on dead or living wood, and the population size directly depends on the appropriate substrate. According to the instructions for estimation of mature individuals provided by Dahlberg and Mueller (2011), an estimate can be made of ca. 200–300 based on the probable total number of sites in the country (ca. 42–70), the estimated number of functional individuals at each locality (estimated to be two) and based on the template of how many mature individuals each reproducing genotype may give rise to (the template used two).

In the light of forest management and the effects of habitat destruction, the quality of appropriate habitat is in a state of continuous decline, inevitably leading to a continuous population decline.

Habitat and Ecology

System

Terrestrial

Habitat and Ecology

Hericium erinaceus grows on deciduous trees, primarily on Fagus sylvatica and Quercus spp., although it can be found on Aesculus hippocastanus, Alnus glutinosa, A. incana, Carpinus betulus, Populus tremula, Tilia cordata, Betula, Fraxinus, Juglans, Malus, Ailanthus and Sorbus (Fraiture and Otto 2015). The fungus grows in well-preserved forests, on old trees with large diameter, as a necrotrophic parasite as the mycelium derives nutrients from dead or dying cells and it develops sporocarps through injuries, cracks and cuttings in autumn. The species is able to continue living and forming sporocarps for many years after the tree has died. It is regarded as an indicator of old-growth forests (Kałucka & Olariaga Ibarguren 2019).

It is a rare species in the country, registered at only 14 sites from mountain (Bistra, Jablanica, Jakupica, Karaorman, Kozuf, Ograzden, Pelister, Skopska Crna Gora), hilly (Pogana, Smrdes) to plain areas (Strumicko Pole). It has been observed in areas with warm climate, at an elevation ranging from 250 m to places with colder climate at 1,350 m a.s.l. One of the sites is in Mavrovo NP, in the zone for sustainable use.

Albeit in North Macedonia these types of forests are dominant, the number of recorded sites is low since the species generally thrives on old and large-diameter beech or oak trees and on dead wood. Nonetheless, besides the known sites, it is highly probable that the species occurs at other sites with appropriate habitat, accordingly, an estimation of probable sites has been made (Dahlberg and Mueller 2011). The probable total number of sites is guesstimated to be 3 to 5 times the current number, resulting in ca. 42–70 sites.

Use and trade

Use and trade

It is an edible species with pharmaceutical properties. However, in North Macedonia, it is not very known for its nourishment, and it is not a subject of trade.

Threats

Threats

Hericium erinaceus population is threatened due to habitat loss of oak and beech forests. It is threatened by logging of old large-diameter beech and oak trees, along with removal of logs from forests to be used for firewood, thereby decreasing the availability of a suitable host for the fungus. In line with available statistics data and publications, 91% of the total forest covered area in North Macedonia is managed, and most of it (93%) is regarded as productive forest for manufacturing of wood whereas the remaining area is also managed but only with a restriction in regard to the logging system (Trajkov et al. 2016, Kolevska et al. 2017). In practice, the silvicultural system applies clear-cutting in oak forests and at some places in beech forests (Trajkov et al. 2016, pers. obs.), resulting in bare lands and even-aged forests while old growth forests are in a state of decline. In North Macedonia, ca. 1% of forests are logged on an annual basis by the national forestry management service (Kolevska et al. 2017, State Statistics Office 2018), and they are usually exploited in cycles of 30-50 years. Illegal logging is considerably high, with additional 30% to legal wood extraction. Therefore, the quality of the appropriate habitat is continuously reducing, posing a major threat to the maintenance of a stable fungus population.

The raised interest for foraging the fungus fruit bodies owing to its edibility and for medicinal purposes might pose a direct threat.

Construction works and other human activities near the villages are a further threat that may cause a decrease of the area and deterioration of the habitat quality.

Conservation actions

Conservation actions

Conservation needed: The survival of this fungus depends on the accessibility of a proper host. Therefore, for conservation of the current species, preservation of old, large-diameter and damaged trees in beech and oak forests is vital. The established sites should be maintained in their natural condition. In the silvicultural management of forests in the country, instead of clear-cutting, trees of various age should be left on site to be allowed to grow and create a suitable habitat for the fungus; also fallen trunks should not be removed from the site.

Reforestation with alien species should not be applied.

Research needed: Regular monitoring of the known sites ought to be conducted, accompanied by field research at the noted potential sites in order to explore the distribution and dynamic of occurrence of Hericium erinaceus. It is advisable to digitize and regularly update forest inventories and forestry plans. There is a necessity of elaboration of a habitat map.

Bibliography

Bibliography

ArtDatabanken, 2020. Hericium erinaceus. Artfakta 2020 Red List of Swedish Species online database. Available at: https://artfakta.se/naturvard/taxon/hericium-erinaceus-769.

Artsdatabanken, 2020. Hericium erinaceus. Norwegian red list for species 2020. Available at: https://www.artsdatabanken.no/taxon/Hericium%20erinaceus/57486.

Corriol, G. (Coord.). 2014. Liste rouge des champignons de Midi-Pyrénées. Conservatoire botanique national des Pyrénées et de Midi-Pyrénées. Midi-Pyrénées, pp. 20, France.

Dahlberg, A. and Croneborg, H. 2003. 33 threatened fungi in Europe: Complementary and revised information on candidates for listing in Appendix I of the Bern Convention. Swedish Species Information Centre, Uppsala.

Dahlberg, A. and Mueller, G.M. 2011. Applying IUCN red-listing criteria for assessing and reporting on the conservation status of fungal species. Fungal Ecology 4(2): 147-162. doi:10.1016/j.funeco.2010.11.001

Đug, S., Hasanbegović, A. and Drešković, N. 2013. Crvena lista gljiva Federacije Bosne i Hercegovine. Federalno ministarstvo okoliša i turizma, Sarajevo.

Fraiture, A and Otto, P (eds). 2015. Distribution, ecology & status of 51 macromycetes in Europe. Results of the ECCF Mapping Programme. Botanic Garden Meise, Meise.

Hallenberg N., Nilsson R.H. and Robledo G. 2013. Species complexes in Hericium (Russulales, Agaricomycota) and a new species – Hericium rajchenbergii – from southern South America. Mycological Progress 12: 413–420.

Holec, J. and Beran, M. (eds). 2006. Red list of fungi (macromycetes) of the Czech Republic. Příroda, pp. 1-282. Praha.

Index Fungorum Partnership. 2020. Index Fungorum. oyal Botanic Gardens Kew and Chinese Academy of Science (the custodians). Available at: http://www.indexfungorum.org.

Kałucka, I.L. and Olariaga Ibarguren, I. 2019. Hericium erinaceus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019. Available at: https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-3.RLTS.T70401627A70401637.en.

Kolevska, D.D., Blinkov, I., Trajkov, P. and Maletić, V. 2017. Reforestation in Macedonia: History, current practice and future perspectives. Reforesta 3: 155-184. DOI:https://dx.doi.org/10.21750/REFOR.3.13.37

Laurent-Dargent, J. 2009. La liste rouge des champignons (macromycètes) rares ou menacés en Lorraine. Sciences pharmaceutiques. https://hal.univ-lorraine.fr/hal-01732739

Peev, D., Petrova, A.S., Anchev, M., Temniskova, D., Denchev, C.M., Ganeva, A., Gussev, C. and Vladimirov, V. (eds). 2015. Red Data Book of the Republic of Bulgaria. Vol. 1. Plants and Fungi. Sofia.

Rossi, G., Montagnani, C., Gargano, D., Peruzzi, L., Abeli, T., Ravera, S., Cogoni, A., Fenu, G., Magrini, S., Gennai, M., Foggi, B., Wagensommer, R.P., Venturella, G., Blasi, C., Raimondo, F.M. and Orsenigo, S. (eds). 2013. Lista Rossa della Flora Italiana. 1. Policy Species e altre specie minacciate. Comitato Italiano IUCN e Ministero dell’Ambiente e della Tutela del Territorio e del Mare.

Senn-Irlet, B., Bieri, G. and Egli, S. 2007. Rote Liste der gefahrdeten Grosspilze der Schweiz. BAFU, WSL, pp. 92, Bern.

Smith, J.H., Suz, L.M. and Ainsworth, A.M. 2016. Red List of Fungi for Great Britain: Bankeraceae, Cantharellaceae, Geastraceae, Hericiaceae and selected genera of Agaricaceae (Battarrea, Bovista, Lycoperdon & Tulostoma) and Fomitopsidaceae (Piptoporus). Conservation assessments based on national database records, fruit body morphology and DNA barcoding with comments on the 2015 assessments of Bailey et al..

State Statistical Office. 2018. MakStat database. Available at: http://makstat.stat.gov.mk/PXWeb/pxweb/mk/MakStat/MakStat__Zemjodelstvo__Sumarstvo. (Accessed: 13 March 2020).

Sugny, D., Beirnaert, P., Billot, A., Caillet, M. & M., Chevrolet, J.P., Galliot, L., Herbert, R. and Moyne, G. 2013. Liste rouge des champignons supérieurs de Franche-Comté. Publication commune Fédération Mycologique de l’Est, Conservatoire National Botanique de Franche-Comté et Société Botanique de Franche-Comté, pp. 114,  LUNÉVILLE, imprimerie PARADIS.

Tănase, C. and Pop, A. 2005. Red List of Romanian Macrofungi Species, Bioplatform – Romanian National Platform for Biodiversity. pp. 101-107. Academiei Române, Bucureşti. ISBN 973-27-1211-2

Tkalčec, Z., Mešić, A., Matočec, N. and Kušan, I. 2008. Red book of Croatian Fungi. Ministry of Culture, State Institute for Nature Protection, Zagreb.

Trajkov, P., Nestorovski, L. and Trajanov, Z. 2016. The Republic of Macedonia. Chapter 36. In: C Vidal et al. (ed.), National Forest Inventories, Assessment of Wood Availability and Use, pp. 667-682. Springer International Publishing Switzerland. DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-44015-6_36

Wojewoda, W. and Ławrynowicz, M. 2006. Red list of macrofungi in Poland. Kraków Available at: https://www.grzyby.pl/czerwona-lista-skorowidz-epi.htm.