Alder bolete

Gyrodon lividus


Евлово вргањче



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Not evaluated Data deficient Least concern Near threatened Vulnerable ENDANGERED Critically endangered Extinct in the wild Extinct
Assessment info
Habitat and Ecology
Use and Trade
Conservation Actions


Scientific name

Gyrodon lividus


(Bull.) Sacc.


Boletus lividus Bull.

Assessment info

IUCN Red List Category and Criteria

Endangered C2a(i)

Date assessed

November 2020


Tofilovska, S.


Kost, G.


Karadelev, M.

Rusevska, K.


Miskovic, M.


Gyrodon lividus occurs in marshes, riparian and gallery woodlands, sometimes by stream banks, in oak or beech forests if an alder stand is present. It is a species mycorrhizal with alder trees exclusively. It is rare, with known eight sites in the country, and the probable total number of sites is estimated at 40, with ca. 800 mature individuals and a few individuals per subpopulation. The population trend is in decline due to continuous loss and degradation of the suitable habitats. The species is categorized as Endangered under criteria C2a(i).


Current population trend



Gyrodon lividus is reported as a rare species in the country, found at only a few sites. Pursuant to the instructions for estimation of mature individuals provided by Dahlberg and Mueller (2011), an estimate can be made of ca. 800 based on the probable total number of sites in the country (40), the estimated number of functional individuals at each locality (estimated to be two), and the template of how many mature individuals each reproducing genotype may give rise to (the template used ten). Due to the current state and the ongoing destruction of the habitats, the population trend is in a decline.

Habitat and Ecology


1 Forest
1.4 Forest – Temperate
5 Wetlands (inland)
5.4 Wetlands (inland) – Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands

Habitat and Ecology

Gyrodon lividus occurs in very moist areas, by river banks, in marshes and riparian and gallery woodlands, in nitrogen-rich ecological conditions, on a rather calcareous and sometimes acid soil. It forms mycorrhiza with alder trees exclusively. The sporocarps may be solitary or in groups, sometimes fused at the base, emerging from summer to autumn.
In North Macedonia, Gyrodon lividus is a rare species recorded at eight sites only, in the biogeographical regions of Taorska Klisura and Badar, Kichevo Valley, Debarca (Belchishta Wetland, largest subpopulation), Zhegligovo, Strumichko Pole, Kozjak-Mariovo, Osogovski Planini and Shar Planina, at elevation ranges between 220–1,450 m (Melovski et al. 2013). The species is edible, conspicuous, and it has been searched for in the well-known areas of riparian communities with Alnus trees. Nevertheless, Gyrodon lividus can also be spotted in minor stands of Alnus spp. on damp soil; hence, an estimation of probable sites was made (Dahlberg and Mueller 2011). The total number of sites is guesstimated to be five times higher than the current number, ca. 40 sites in total.

Use and trade

Use and trade

There is no confirmed use and trade of this species in N. Macedonia.



The major threat to maintaining a stable population is the loss of suitable habitats for the species: riparian and gallery woodlands dominated by Alnus, Betula, Populus or Salix and boreo-alpine riparian galleries (G1.1), mixed riparian floodplain and gallery woodlands (G1.2), Mediterranean riparian woodlands (G1.3) and broadleaved swamp woodland on non-acid peat (G1.4). These habitats, according to the latest Biodiversity Action Plan (2018), are estimated to be under high-intensity threat due to a complete change of the area by melioration and conversion into an arable land, or by decline in habitat quality by drainage and destruction; therefore, they are regarded as one of the most endangered habitats in the country.

According to the National Action Plan for Fight against Desertification in the Republic of Macedonia (2017), a decrease of 2,500 ha of wetland areas and marshes in the period between years 2000–2012 had occurred, judging from the analyses of CORINE land cover.
Construction of forest roads and logging activities sometimes leads to destruction of alder trees by stream beds in forests.

Conservation actions

Conservation actions

Conservation needed: The known locations where the species occurs must be protected and preserved in their natural condition. Implementation of activities for conservation and restoration of riparian and woodland habitats. While logging in oak and beech forests, Alnus trees by stream banks should remain intact.

Research needed: Regular monitoring on an annual basis at the established site, coupled with field research at the potential sites aiming at further exploring the distribution and dynamics of occurrence of Gyrodon lividus. It is advisable to digitize and regularly update forest inventories and forestry plans. There is a necessity of elaboration of a habitat map.



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