THE NATIONAL RED LIST OF NORTH MACEDONIA

Alder bolete

Gyrodon lividus

Macedonian

Евлово вргањче

Albanian

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Taxonomy
Assessment info
Population
Habitat and Ecology
Threats
Use and Trade
Conservation Actions
Bibliography

Taxonomy

Scientific name

Gyrodon lividus

Authority

(Bull.) Sacc.

Synonyms

Boletus lividus Bull.

Assessment info

IUCN Red List Category and Criteria

Endangered C2a(i)

Date assessed

November 2020

Assessors

Tofilovska, S.

Reviewers

Kost, G.

Contributors

Karadelev, M.

Rusevska, K.

Facilitators

Miskovic, M.

Justification

Gyrodon lividus occurs in marshes, riparian and gallery woodlands, sometimes by stream banks, in oak or beech forests if an alder stand is present. It is a species mycorrhizal with alder trees exclusively. It is rare, with known eight sites in the country, and the probable total number of sites is estimated at 40, with ca. 800 mature individuals and a few individuals per subpopulation. The population trend is in decline due to continuous loss and degradation of the suitable habitats. The species is categorized as Endangered under criteria C2a(i).

Population

Current population trend

Decreasing

Description

Gyrodon lividus is reported as a rare species in the country, found at only a few sites. Pursuant to the instructions for estimation of mature individuals provided by Dahlberg and Mueller (2011), an estimate can be made of ca. 800 based on the probable total number of sites in the country (40), the estimated number of functional individuals at each locality (estimated to be two), and the template of how many mature individuals each reproducing genotype may give rise to (the template used ten). Due to the current state and the ongoing destruction of the habitats, the population trend is in a decline.

Habitat and Ecology

System

1 Forest
1.4 Forest – Temperate
5 Wetlands (inland)
5.4 Wetlands (inland) – Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands

Habitat and Ecology

Gyrodon lividus occurs in very moist areas, by river banks, in marshes and riparian and gallery woodlands, in nitrogen-rich ecological conditions, on a rather calcareous and sometimes acid soil. It forms mycorrhiza with alder trees exclusively. The sporocarps may be solitary or in groups, sometimes fused at the base, emerging from summer to autumn.
In North Macedonia, Gyrodon lividus is a rare species recorded at eight sites only, in the biogeographical regions of Taorska Klisura and Badar, Kichevo Valley, Debarca (Belchishta Wetland, largest subpopulation), Zhegligovo, Strumichko Pole, Kozjak-Mariovo, Osogovski Planini and Shar Planina, at elevation ranges between 220–1,450 m (Melovski et al. 2013). The species is edible, conspicuous, and it has been searched for in the well-known areas of riparian communities with Alnus trees. Nevertheless, Gyrodon lividus can also be spotted in minor stands of Alnus spp. on damp soil; hence, an estimation of probable sites was made (Dahlberg and Mueller 2011). The total number of sites is guesstimated to be five times higher than the current number, ca. 40 sites in total.

Use and trade

Use and trade

There is no confirmed use and trade of this species in N. Macedonia.

Threats

Threats

The major threat to maintaining a stable population is the loss of suitable habitats for the species: riparian and gallery woodlands dominated by Alnus, Betula, Populus or Salix and boreo-alpine riparian galleries (G1.1), mixed riparian floodplain and gallery woodlands (G1.2), Mediterranean riparian woodlands (G1.3) and broadleaved swamp woodland on non-acid peat (G1.4). These habitats, according to the latest Biodiversity Action Plan (2018), are estimated to be under high-intensity threat due to a complete change of the area by melioration and conversion into an arable land, or by decline in habitat quality by drainage and destruction; therefore, they are regarded as one of the most endangered habitats in the country.

According to the National Action Plan for Fight against Desertification in the Republic of Macedonia (2017), a decrease of 2,500 ha of wetland areas and marshes in the period between years 2000–2012 had occurred, judging from the analyses of CORINE land cover.
Construction of forest roads and logging activities sometimes leads to destruction of alder trees by stream beds in forests.

Conservation actions

Conservation actions

Conservation needed: The known locations where the species occurs must be protected and preserved in their natural condition. Implementation of activities for conservation and restoration of riparian and woodland habitats. While logging in oak and beech forests, Alnus trees by stream banks should remain intact.

Research needed: Regular monitoring on an annual basis at the established site, coupled with field research at the potential sites aiming at further exploring the distribution and dynamics of occurrence of Gyrodon lividus. It is advisable to digitize and regularly update forest inventories and forestry plans. There is a necessity of elaboration of a habitat map.

Bibliography

Bibliography

ArtDatabanken, 2020. Gyrodon lividus. Artfakta 2020 Red List of Swedish Species online database. Available at: https://artfakta.se/naturvard/taxon/gyrodon-lividus-749.
Artsdatabanken, 2020. Gyrodon lividus. Norwegian red list for species 2020. Available at: www.artsdatabanken.no/Taxon/Gyrodon%20lividus/56119.
Bal, C. 2018. A Study on antioxidant properties of Gyrodon lividus. Eurasian Journal of Forest Science 6(2): 40-43.
Corriol, G. (Coord.). 2014. Liste rouge des champignons de Midi-Pyrénées. Conservatoire botanique national des Pyrénées et de Midi-Pyrénées. Midi-Pyrénées, France.
Dahlberg, A. and Mueller, G.M. 2011. Applying IUCN red-listing criteria for assessing and reporting on the conservation status of fungal species. Fungal Ecology 4(2): 147-162.
Friebes, G., Dämon, W., Michelitsch S., Pidlich-Aigner H. and Krisai-Greilhuber, I. 2017. Verzeichnis und Rote Liste der Großpilze der Steiermark (Österreich). Joannea Botanik 14: 29–112.
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Index Fungorum Partnership. 2020. Index Fungorum. Available at: http://www.indexfungorum.org.
Laurent-Dargent, J. 2009. La liste rouge des champignons (macromycètes) rares ou menacés en Lorraine. Sciences pharmaceutiques.
Melovski, Lj., Markoski, B., Hristovski, S., Jovanovska, D., Anastasovski, V., Klincharov, S., Velevski, M., Velkovski, N., Trendafilov, A., Matevski, V., Kostadinovski, M., Karadelev, M., Levkov, Z. and Kolchakovski, D. 2013. Regional division of the Republic of Macedonia for the needs of biological databases. Macedonian journal of Ecology and Environment 15(2): 81-111.
Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning. 2017. National Action Plan for Combating Desertification in the Republic of Macedonia. Support to the Republic of Macedonia for the development of a National Action Plan in line with the 10-year Strategy of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) and the Convention reporting process by UNEP. Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning of the Republic of Macedonia, Skopje.
Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning. 2018. National biodiversity strategy and action plan: for the period 2018–2023. Support to the Republic of Macedonia for revision of national biodiversity strategy and action plan and development of the fifth national report to the convention on biodiversity. Ministry of environment and physical planning, Skopje.
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